Examining the relationship between metabolic stress and muscle growth
The impact of metabolic stress on hypertrophic adaptations is exemplified by blood flow restriction (BFR) training studies. BFR training involves restricting venous inflow via the use of a pressure cuff while training (figure 2.5) with light weights (generally equating to <40% of 1RM), thereby heightening ischemia in the muscle as it contracts.
Optimized training frequency for muscle hypertrophy
Modulating training frequency is an effective strategy to manipulate volume loads. There appears to be a benefit to higher training frequencies, at least over short-term training protocols. Thus, total-body routines represent an attractive option for maximizing training frequency for each muscle group.
Hypertrophy can be achieved in all loading zones. Low-load training emphasizes metabolic stress and promotes the greatest increases in local muscular endurance, whereas low-repetition, high-load training requires high mechanical tension and enhances the ability to lift heavier loads as a result of greater neural adaptations.
Written by Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, a leading authority on muscle
hypertrophy, Science and Development of Muscle Hypertrophy
provides strength and conditioning professionals, researchers, and
instructors with a definitive resource for information regarding muscle
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Muscle hypertrophy—defined as an increase in muscular size—is one of the primary outcomes of resistance training. Science and Development of Muscle Hypertrophy is a comprehensive compilation of science-based principles to help professionals develop muscle hypertrophy in athletes and clients. With more than 825 references and applied guidelines throughout, no other resource offers a comparable quantity of content solely focused on muscle hypertrophy. Readers will find up-to-date content so they fully understand the science of muscle hypertrophy and its application to designing training programs.
Written by Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, a leading authority on muscle hypertrophy, this text provides strength and conditioning professionals, personal trainers, sport scientists, researchers, and exercise science instructors with a definitive resource for information regarding muscle hypertrophy—the mechanism of its development, how the body structurally and hormonally changes when exposed to stress, ways to most effectively design training programs, and current nutrition guidelines for eliciting hypertrophic changes. The full-color book offers several features to make the content accessible to readers:
Research Findings sidebars highlight the aspects of muscle hypertrophy currently being examined to encourage readers to re-evaluate their knowledge and ensure their training practices are up to date.
Practical Applications sidebars outline how to apply the research conclusions for maximal hypertrophic development.
Comprehensive subject and author indexes optimize the book’s utility as a reference tool.
An image bank containing most of the art, photos, and tables from the text allows instructors and presenters to easily teach the material outlined in the book.
Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a range of training programs, this text allows readers to understand and apply the specific responses and mechanisms that promote optimal muscle hypertrophy in their athletes and clients. It explores how genetic background, age, sex, and other factors have been shown to mediate the hypertrophic response to exercise, affecting both the rate and the total gain in lean muscle mass. Sample programs in the text show how to design a three- or four-day-per-week undulating periodized program and a modified linear periodized program for maximizing muscular development.
Science and Development of Muscle Hypertrophy is an invaluable resource for strength and conditioning professionals seeking to maximize hypertrophic gains and those searching for the most comprehensive, authoritative, and current research in the field.
Chapter 1. Hypertrophy-Related Responses and Adaptations to Exercise Stress
Endocrine, Paracrine, and Autocrine Systems
Chapter 2. Mechanisms of Hypertrophy
Chapter 3. Role of Resistance Training Variables in Hypertrophy
Type of Muscle Action
Rest Interval Length
Range of Motion
Intensity of Effort
Chapter 4. Role of Aerobic Training in Hypertrophy
Hypertrophic Effects From Aerobic-Only Training
Chapter 5. Factors in Maximal Hypertrophic Development
Chapter 6. Program Design for Maximal Hypertrophy
Exercise Selection Strategies
Chapter 7. Nutrition for Hypertrophy
About the Author
Reference for strength and conditioning professionals, researchers, and
scientists studying muscle hypertrophy; textbook for upper-undergraduate
and graduate students in exercise science.
Brad Schoenfeld, PhD, CSCS, CSPS, FNSCA, is widely regarded as
one of the leading strength and fitness experts in the United States.
The 2011 NSCA Personal Trainer of the Year is a lifetime drug-free
bodybuilder who has won numerous natural bodybuilding titles, including
the All-Natural Physique and Power Conference (ANPPC) Tri-State Naturals
and USA Mixed Pairs crowns. As a personal trainer, Schoenfeld has worked
with numerous elite-level physique athletes, including many top pros.
Also, he was elected to the National Strength and Conditioning
Association’s Board of Directors in 2012.
Schoenfeld is the author of multiple consumer-oriented fitness books,
including The M.A.X. Muscle Plan and Strong and Sculpted (formerly
Sculpting Her Body Perfect). He is a regular columnist for Muscular
Development magazine, has been published or featured in virtually
every major fitness magazine (including Muscle and Fitness,
MuscleMag, Ironman, Oxygen, and Shape), and has appeared on
hundreds of television shows and radio programs across the United States.
Schoenfeld earned his PhD in health promotion and wellness at Rocky
Mountain University, where his research focused on elucidating the
mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance
training. He has published more than 80 peer-reviewed scientific papers
and serves on the editorial advisory boards for several journals,
including the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research and Journal
of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. He is an assistant
professor of exercise science at Lehman College in the Bronx, New York,
and heads their human performance laboratory.
Supplementary Instructional Materials
Image bank. Includes most of the full-color art, photos, and tables from the text. The images may be used to create handouts, enhance PowerPoint presentations, or create other learning aids for students.