Changes in body composition have important implications for successful aging
Determining age-related developmental changes in body size (i.e., height and weight) or weight relative to height (BMI) is inadequate for understanding the actual changes that occur, because the body is composed of many different tissues.
The physical aging process progresses every day—and so does our understanding of it. Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition, will keep students and professionals up to date on the outcomes of the latest research studies and their implications for the elderly in the real world. Physical aging affects us cognitively, psychologically, socially, and spiritually. The book discusses how people age physically and how this aging affects other dimensions of life.
The second edition of Physical Dimensions of Aging has been updated to integrate research findings on physical aging from more than 100 different journals in myriad fields, creating interdisciplinary coverage on the topic. It provides students and professionals with what they need to know about physical aging in order to conduct clinical research and to work with clients and patients. In doing so, it retains its landmark status as the definitive reference on aging.
Moreover, Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition, focuses less on explaining the measurement techniques and research design and more on the outcome of the studies and their practical implications for everyday living. This approach will enable professionals and students to do the following:
Understand the physical aging process and its effects on other dimensions of life.
Apply the latest research in working with adults and the elderly.
Become more effective in their professions.
The structure of this new edition is more conducive to learning and features the following:
Sidebars of capsule research studies
Testimonials, vignettes, and other tidbits that tie the research information to the real world
Review questions to assist students in synthesizing and remembering the information
Short lists of recommended reading for those who want to pursue the topic in more detail
A glossary at the end of the book
This second edition is organized into five parts. Part I provides an introduction to aging, to the field of gerontology, and to the research process for studying individual differences. Part II describes the physical changes in structure, capacity, and endurance. Part III overviews the factors related to motor coordination, motor control, and skill learning for older adults. Part IV addresses physical–psychosocial relationships, including health, exercise, and cognitive function as well as health-related expectations of quality of life for older adults. Part V highlights physical performance and achievement especially to showcase the results from consistent effort and hard work of physically elite older adults as inspiration for others.
At a time when many people are telling older adults what they can’t do, professionals should be telling them what they can do. Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition, will equip professionals to do so.
Part I. An Introduction to Aging
Chapter 1. Quantity and Quality of Life
What Is Aging?
How Is Aging Described?
What Causes Aging?
Can the Aging Process Be Slowed?
How Does Physical Aging Affect the Quality of Life?
Quality of Life Components
Health and Fitness Contributions in Different Age Categories
Chapter 2. Individual Differences
Assessment of Individual Differences
Sources of Individual Differences
How Research Design Affects Our View of Individual Differences
Can the Process of Studying People Influence Individual Differences?
Importance of Individual Differences in Understanding Aging Research
Part II. Physical Changes in Structure, Capacity, and Endurance
Chapter 3. Physical Development and Decline
Changes in Body Shape
Changes in Body Composition
Changes in Bone
Coping With the Interface of Aging Bones, Muscles, and Tendons
Skin: Taking the Brunt of the Environment for Years
Chapter 4. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Function
Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Aging Effects on the Respiratory System
Preventing or Postponing Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
Chapter 5. Muscular Strength and Power
Strength and Power
Changes in Muscular Strength With Age
Why Strength Decreases With Age
Resistance Training for Strength
Part III. Motor Coordination, Motor Control, and Skill
Chapter 6. Balance and Posture
Defining the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
Theoretical Framework of Balance and Mobility
Intrinsic Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
Age-Associated Changes in the Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
Evaluating the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
Age-Associated Changes in Gait
Falling—When Balance Fails
Can Falling in the Elderly Be Prevented?
Chapter 7. Behavioral Speed
Age-Sensitive Factors That Affect Response Speed
Reaction Time and Variability
Other Factors Influencing Speed of Processing
Theories of Response Slowing
Neurobiological Explanations of Age-Related Slowing
Functional Significance of Behavioral Speed
Chapter 8. Motor Control, Coordination, and Skill
Definitions of Coordination, Control, and Learning
Age-Related Sensorimotor Changes That Affect Coordination and Control
Theoretical Strategies to Explain Coordination, Control, and Learning
How Coordination and Control Are Accomplished
Upper Limb and Hand Control
Aging Effects on Two Important Tasks: Driving and Handwriting
Learning Physical Skills
Mechanisms of Learning: Neural Plasticity
Compensatory Strategies for Losses of Coordination
Psychological and Emotional Factors That Influence Coordination and Learning
Part IV. Physical–Psychosocial Relationships
Chapter 9. Health, Exercise, and Cognitive Function
Concepts of Physical Activity, Health and Fitness, and Cognitive Function
Health and Physical Activity Effects on Cognitive Function
Mechanisms by Which Physical Activity May Benefit Cognition
Process by Which Fitness May Benefit Cognitive Function
Implications of a Physical Activity–Cognition Relationship for Older Adults
Chapter 10. Health-Related Quality of Life
Quality of Life
Physical Function, Physical Activity, Fitness, and Exercise
Influence of Exercise on Well-Being
Characteristics of Exercise Related to Well-Being
Part V. Physical Performance and Achievement
Chapter 11. Physical Function of Older Adults
Definitions of Physical Function
Hierarchy of Physical Function in Older Adults
Determining Physical Function in the Elderly
Role of Physical Activity in Postponing Disability and Facilitating Independent Living
Exercise Interventions and Physical Function
Expectations for Physical Performance of the Old and Oldest-Old
Chapter 12. Physically Elite Older Adults
Who Are the “Physically Elite” Older Adults?
Studying the Elite Physical Performance of Masters Athletes
Masters Athletes’ Record Performances
Estimating Age-Related Changes in Physiological Function Capacity
Nonphysiological Factors That Influence Maximum Sport Performance
Social Support Systems and the Positive Secular Trend
How Do They Do It?
Textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses. A reference for exercise scientists, health and medical specialists, and gerontology specialists.
Waneen W. Spirduso, EdD, is the Oscar and Anne Mauzy Regents Professor in the department of kinesiology and health education at The University of Texas (UT) at Austin. She was chair of the UT (Austin) department of kinesiology and health education for 14 years and served as interim dean of the College of Education for 2-1/2 years. Since 1975 her academic interests, research, and presentations have focused on issues central to gerontology and kinesiology, and her research programs have been sponsored by four of the National Institutes of Health and several local foundations.
A widely published author, Dr. Spirduso is also a popular speaker at conferences across the United States. She is the recipient of many honors and awards, including recognition as the Texas Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar in 1986 and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Scholar (AAHPERD) in 1987. She served two terms as president of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and one term as president of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE).
Dr. Spirduso is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, and a member of AAHPERD, ACSM, and AAKPE.
Karen L. Francis, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of exercise and sport science at the University of San Francisco. She received her master's degree and PhD in motor control and learning and a doctoral portfolio in gerontology from the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Francis' primary research interest is in the loss of hand motor control that occurs with aging. She is a member of the Gerontological Society of America, the Society for Neuroscience, and the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity.
Priscilla Gilliam MacRae, PhD, is professor of sports medicine and director of the Motor Behavior Laboratory at Pepperdine University. She received her MS from the University of Arizona and her PhD from the University of Texas at Austin. She completed postdoctoral training at the University of Southern California. MacRae has published 38 research articles and book chapters, presented in national and international meetings, and received the Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Award from Pepperdine University. Her research has been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), AARP Andrus Foundation, Jewish Homes for the Aging, California Physical Therapy Association, and Pepperdine University. Dr. MacRae is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and a member of the Southwest Chapter of ACSM, the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD), the Society for Neuroscience, and the Gerontological Society of America.
Dr. MacRae's research focuses on effects of exercise on physiological and psychological aspects of aging. Her current research focuses on how older adults acquire new motor skills, including changes in older adults' ability to control force in a visuomotor tasks that involve precision and speed. Her research populations have included older adults at many levels of function, from elite female marathoners to nursing-home residents.