Evolution of physical activity guidelines reflects changing body of evidence
Scientific knowledge about physical activity and health is of little value if people cannot understand it and apply it to their lives. For the past three decades, there has been a gradual but steady development in the effort to present information on physical activity and health to the general public.
Research has repeatedly shown that exposure to regular, frequent bouts of physical activity stimulates physiological and metabolic changes that benefit health. It is helpful to classify these as either (a) chronic effects, that is, adaptations to training acquired over weeks or months, or (b) short-term, acute responses to each individual session of activity.
While psychological, social, and environmental factors contribute significantly to physical activity behavior, it is important to recognize that activity behavior also has a biological basis and that genetic variation could affect individuals’ propensity to be physically active or sedentary.
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The human body is designed for activity. For most of our history, physical activity was required for survival, but technological advances have eliminated much of the need for hard physical labor. As our activity levels have dropped, it has become clear that a physically inactive lifestyle can lead to a host of health problems. Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive treatment of the research on the benefits of a physically active lifestyle in comparison with the harmful consequences of physical inactivity.
Written by leading scientists from the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, brings together the results of the most important studies on the relationship between physical activity, sedentarism, and various health outcomes. The second edition has been fully updated based on the latest advances in this rapidly changing field and expanded to include the following new content:
A chapter on the physiology of inactivity and the effects of sedentary behavior even in people who engage in appropriate amounts of physical activity, which is an area of growing interest
More extensive coverage of physical activity, aging, and the brain, including a new chapter on the relationship between physical activity and brain structures and functions
A chapter on the development of national and international physical activity and health guidelines, which will help readers better understand how scientific findings are converted into practical recommendations
Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, offers a detailed yet concise presentation of key concepts as well as a framework to help readers relate results from single studies or collections of studies to the overall paradigm linking physical activity and physical fitness to health. For each of the topics covered, the text provides an overview of the most important research findings, discusses the limitations of the current knowledge base, and identifies directions for future investigation.
At the core of the text is a review of our current understanding of how physical activity affects health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity as well as aging and mental health. The text identifies sedentary living habits and poor fitness as major public health problems and examines the potential of physical activity to prevent disease and enhance quality of life. This complete resource also looks at the evolution of the field of physical activity and health; variations in physical activity levels across age, sex, and ethnic groups; the body’s physiological responses to physical activity; dose-response issues; and the influence of genetics on physical activity, fitness, and health. The book ends with an integration of the issues covered and discusses new opportunities for research.
The second edition of Physical Activity and Health continues to offer clear, user-friendly coverage of the most important concepts and research in the field. Numerous special features will aid readers in their comprehension of the material. Chapter outlines and callout boxes help readers key in on important topics and focus their reading, and chapter summaries, definitions of key terms, and study questions provide tools for review and self-testing. Commonly used acronyms and abbreviations are found on the interior covers for handy reference.
Where other books have simply promoted physical activity for the individual or a population, Physical Activity and Health, Second Edition, completely integrates current knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and health. With contributions from some of the finest scientists in the field, this comprehensive text offers information unmatched in accuracy and reliability.
Part I: History and Current Status of the Study of Physical Activity and Health
Chapter 1: Why Study Physical Activity and Health? Claude Bouchard, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and William L. Haskell, PhD
Human Evolution, History, and Physical Activity
Burden of Chronic Diseases
Health and Its Determinants
Aging and Health
Defining Physical Activity and Physical Fitness
Physical Inactivity Versus Physical Activity
Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health Russell R. Pate, PhD
Early Beliefs About Physical Activity and Health
Scientific Inquiry on Exercise and Health
Evolution of Physical Activity Guidelines
Chapter 3: Physical Activity and Fitness With Age, Sex, and Ethnic Differences Peter T. Katzmarzyk, PhD, FACSM
Chapter 4: Sedentary Behavior and Inactivity Physiology Marc Hamilton, PhD; and Neville Owen, PhD
Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Public Health
Inactivity Physiology: The Underlying Biology of Acute and Chronic Muscular Inactivity
Sedentary Behavior and Metabolic Health: Emerging Epidemiological Evidence
Humans May Not Have Reached the Pinnacle of Physical Inactivity
A Comprehensive Sedentary Behavior Research Agenda
Public Health Implications
Part II: Effects of Physical Activity on the Human Organism
Chapter 5: Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Responses to Physical Activity Edward T. Howley, PhD
Relationship of Energy to Physical Activity
Oxygen Consumption and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Exercise
Effect of Training, Age, and Gender on Maximal Oxygen Uptake
Application to Exercise Training and Physical Activity Interventions
Chapter 6: Acute Responses to Physical Activity and Exercise Adrianne E. Hardman, MSc, PhD
Lipids and Lipoproteins
Immune Function and Inflammation
Responses Related to Energy Balance
Augmentation of Acute Effects by Training
Chapter 7: Hormonal Response to Regular Physical Activity Peter A. Farrell, PhD
Importance of Hormonal Regulation
Regular Physical Activity and Hormonal Adaptations
Chapter 8: Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Regular Physical Activity Howard J. Green, PhD
Skeletal Muscle and Human Survival
Muscle Cell: Composition, Structure, and Function
Muscle Fiber Types and Subtypes
Muscle Adaptation and Functional Consequences
Aging Muscle: The Role of Training
Chapter 9: Response of Liver, Kidney, and Other Organs and Tissues to Regular Physical Activity Roy J. Shephard, MB, BS, MD (London), PhD, DPE, DLL
Acute Effects of Physical Activity
Chronic Effects of Physical Activity
Strengths and Limitations of the Current Evidence
Part III: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health
Chapter 10: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Mortality Rates Michael J. LaMonte, PhD, MPH; and Steven N. Blair, PED
Physical Activity and Mortality
Fitness and Mortality
Activity or Fitness and Mortality in Adults With Existing Diseases
Quantifying the Population Mortality Burden of Inactivity
Chapter 11: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities Ian Janssen, PhD
Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Morbidities
Low Physical Activity and Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness as Risk Factors for Pulmonary Morbidities
Role of Physical Activity in Patients with Cardiac, Vascular, and Pulmonary Morbidities
Chapter 12: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Obesity Robert Ross, PhD, FACSM; and Ian Janssen, PhD
Definition and Problem of Overweight and Obesity
Relationships Among Excess Weight, Physical Activity, and Fitness
Role of Physical Activity in Prevention and Treatment of Excess Weight
Chapter 13: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Diabetes Mellitus Roeland J. Middelbeek, MD, MS; and Laurie J. Goodyear, PhD
Diabetes: Definitions and Prevalence
Epidemiology, Etiology, and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes
Impact of Physical Activity on Insulin and Glucose Metabolism
Epidemiological Evidence Indicating Benefits of Physical Activity in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes
Summary of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes
Importance of Regular Physical Activity for People With Type 2 Diabetes
Chapter 14: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cancer I-Min Lee, MBBS, MPH, ScD
Importance of Cancer
How Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer
How We Study Whether Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Decrease the Risk of Developing Cancer
Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Site-Specific Cancers
Physical Activity and Cancer Survivors
Chapter 15: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Joint and Bone Health Jennifer M. Hootman, PhD, ATC, FACSM, FNATA
Strengths and Limitations of the Evidence
Chapter 16: Physical Activity, Muscular Fitness, and Health Neil McCartney, PhD; and Stuart M. Phillips, PhD
History of Resistance Training and Its Role in Health
Fundamental Aspects of Resistance Training
Resistance Training Throughout the Life Span
Resistance Training in Disease and Disability
Chapter 17: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Children Thomas Rowland, MD
Understanding the Exercise–Health Link in Children
Measurement of Physical Activity in Youth
Defining the Kinds and Amount of Physical Activities for Health
Optimal Intervention Strategies
Biological Effects on Physical Activity in Youth
Chapter 18: Risks of Physical Activity Evert A.L.M. Verhagen, PhD, FECSS; Esther M.F. van Sluijs, PhD; and Willem van Mechelen, MD, PhD, FACSM, FECSS
Risks of Physical Activity and Sport Participation
Minimizing Risk and Maximizing Benefits
Recommendations for Future Research
Part IV: Physical Activity, Fitness, Aging, and Brain Functions
Chapter 19: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Aging Loretta DiPietro, PhD, MPH
The Aging Process
Methodological Considerations in Aging Research
Demographics of Physical Activity Among Older Adults
Dimensions of Physical Activity and Their Relationship to Health and Function in Aging
Programmatic Issues in Promoting Physical Activity in Older Populations
Chapter 20: Physical Activity and Brain Functions Kirk I. Erickson, PhD
Applied Questions: Populations Benefiting From Physical Activity
Moderating Questions: Factors Moderating the Effect of Physical Activity
Chapter 21: Exercise and Its Effects on Mental Health John S. Raglin, PhD; and Gregory S. Wilson, PED, FACSM
Research Paradigms of Exercise and Mental Health Research
Exercise and Depression
Exercise and Anxiety
Exercise and Schizophrenia
Putative Mechanisms for the Psychological Benefits of Exercise
Detrimental Psychological Responses to Exercise: The Overtraining Syndrome
Part V: How Much Is Required and How Do We Get There?
Chapter 22: Dose–Response Issues in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health William L. Haskell, PhD
Principles Guiding the Body’s Response to Activity
Components of the Physical Activity Dose
Factors Determining Optimal Activity Dose
Physical Activity and Fitness: Dose for Health Benefits
Chapter 23: From Science to Physical Activity Guidelines Mark S. Tremblay, PhD; and William L. Haskell, PhD
Stages of Physical Activity Guideline Development
Strengths, Limitations, and Challenges
Part VI: New Challenges and Opportunities
Chapter 24: Genetic Differences in the Relationships Among Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health Tuomo Rankinen, PhD; and Claude Bouchard, PhD
Basics of Human Genetics
Events in Human Genes and Genomes
Genetic Variation in Exercise Traits Among Sedentary People
Genetics of Physical Activity Level
Individual Differences in Response to Regular Exercise
Genes and Responses to Exercise
Trait-Specific Response to Exercise
Personalized Exercise Medicine
Chapter 25: An Integrated View of Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health William L. Haskell, PhD; Steven N. Blair, PED; and Claude Bouchard, PhD
Physical Activity Versus Inactivity: Universal Value Versus Damaging Consequences
Developing and Implementing Physical Activity Plans
Research Questions and Issues
About the Contributors
About the Editors
A textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate students in kinesiology, exercise science, physical education, public health, health promotion, preventive medicine, and human biology. A reference for professionals.
Claude Bouchard, PhD, is the director of the Human Genomics Laboratory at Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a campus of the Louisiana State University System, where he also holds the John W. Barton Sr. chair in genetics and nutrition. He was director of the Physical Activity Sciences Laboratory at Laval University, Quebec City, Canada, for over 20 years. Dr. Bouchard holds a BPed from Laval University, an MSc in exercise physiology from the University of Oregon at Eugene, and a PhD in population genetics from the University of Texas at Austin.
For four decades, his research has dealt with the role of physical activity, and the lack thereof, on physiology, metabolism, and indicators of health, taking into account genetic uniqueness. He has performed research on the contributions of gene sequence variation and the benefits to be expected from regular activity in terms of changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors.
Dr. Bouchard has served as program leader for four consensus conferences and symposia pertaining to various aspects of physical activity and health. He has published more than 1,000 scientific papers and has edited several books and monographs dealing with physical activity and health.
Dr. Bouchard is the recipient of the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society, the Albert Creff Award of the National Academy of Medicine of France, and four honoris causa doctorates (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, University of South Carolina, University of Guelph, and Brock University). He is a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium and a member of the Order of Canada.
Dr. Bouchard is former president of the Canadian Society for Applied Physiology, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the International Association for the Study of Obesity. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Nutrition, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Steven N. Blair, PED, is a professor at the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in Columbia. His research focuses on the associations between lifestyle and health, with a specific emphasis on exercise, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic disease. As one of the most highly cited exercise scientists currently active in research, Dr. Blair has published more than 550 articles, chapters, and books in scientific and professional literature. He also was the senior scientific editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. Dr. Blair has received numerous awards, including the Honor Award from the American College of Sports Medicine, Population Science Award from the American Heart Association, U.S. Surgeon General’s Medallion, Folksam Epidemiology Prize from the Karolinska Institute of Stockholm, and a MERIT award from the National Institutes of Health. He also has received honorary doctoral degrees from universities in the United States, Belgium, and England.
Dr. Blair is a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, Society of Behavioral Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, and American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education. He was also elected to membership in the American Epidemiological Society. He was the first president of the National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity and is a past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education.
William L. Haskell, PhD, is emeritus professor of medicine in the Stanford Prevention Research Center and the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine. He holds an honorary MD degree from Linkoping University in Sweden.
For more than 40 years, his research has investigated the relationships between physical activity and health. He has been involved at the national and international levels in the development of physical activity and fitness guidelines and recommendations for physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention.
Dr. Haskell has served as principal investigator on major NIH-funded research projects demonstrating the health benefits of physical activity. For the past 17 years, he has been a member of the planning committee and faculty for the CDC-sponsored research course on physical activity and public health. From 1968 to 1970, he was program director for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. He also served as chair of the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which documented the scientific basis for the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. From 2008 to 2010 he was a scientific advisor to the World Health Organization for the development of Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health (2010) and to the United Kingdom Health Ministries for the development of physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines for the home countries. Currently he is chair of the International Review Panel for the Evaluation of Exercise and Sports Sciences in the Nordic Countries.
He is past president of the American College of Sports Medicine and founder and past president of the American College of Sports Medicine Foundation. He was a fellow with the Exercise and Rehabilitation Council, American Heart Association, and American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation.
“With the vast number of topics it covers as well as the examples of the practical application of the underlying principles it presents, this book is an excellent learning and teaching resource.”