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Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health is the first text dedicated to the basic concepts of genetics in relation to the broad range of topics in exercise science and health. Author Stephen M. Roth, PhD, makes the content comprehensible for readers who are unfamiliar with genetics without sacrificing the foundational and critical understanding necessary for interpreting research findings and incorporating genetics into research programs.
Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health maintains a practical focus and addresses common concerns when preparing to study genetics, such as how to use online search tools to identify existing research literature and how to identify and select candidate genes using genome databases. Through this text, readers will discover these concepts:
The basics of DNA and genetics as they relate to health, physical activity, and sport
Specific skills and strategies for interpreting and applying genetics findings in research
How genetics research may affect sport performance training and clinical practice
The ethical issues raised by genetics in society and sport
Special focus sections are incorporated throughout the text, providing expanded discussions of interesting topics in each chapter. Students see examples of how the principles described in the book have played out in real-life research, and they receive explicit instructions on planning and interpreting genetics research. Pedagogical aids such as summaries, key terms, and review questions also make this text ideal for efficient learning.
Part I presents readers with the basic biology and genetics information they need in order to understand and apply the information to exercise science. Part II explores the research and design methods that will help readers interpret and apply their findings. Part III addresses some of the current research findings in the area of genetics in exercise and health and discusses current issues in the field, including the potential for misuse of new genetic technologies and the ethics involved in gene doping.
Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health is the second volume in Human Kinetics’ Primers in Exercise Science Series, which provides students and professionals with a nonintimidating basic understanding of the science behind its topic and, where appropriate, how that science is applied. These books are written by leading researchers and teachers in their respective areas of expertise. The authors present in an easy-to-understand manner the essential concepts in dynamic, complex areas of scientific knowledge. The books in the series are ideal for researchers and professionals who need some background in an unfamiliar scientific area. The books also function as accessible basic references for those who will be returning to the material often. This particular book adds a health dimension to the exercise science focus of the series, with discussions on disease- and health-related information.
Genetic research will play an important role in the future practice of exercise science and health, requiring students and professionals to have this basic knowledge for success in their careers. Through its practical presentation of current and basic topics, Genetics Primer for Exercise Science and Health makes the case for more universities to introduce genetics courses to their curricula. Having the essential topics of genetics in a single, practical introductory text will facilitate the work of instructors, students, and professionals.
Part I. Basics of Genetics
Chapter 1. Individual Differences: The Role of Genetics in Exercise Science and Health
Hidden Aspect of Average Values
Why Do We See Variation in a Physical Trait?
Chapter 2. DNA, RNA, and Protein
Basic Cell Biology
Our Genetic Material as Chromosomes
Special Focus: The Human Genome Project
Amino Acids and Proteins
Structure of Genes
Chapter 3. Transcription, Translation, and the Genetic Code
Moving From DNA to RNA: Transcription
Posttranscriptional Modifications of RNA
Moving From RNA to Protein: Translation
Posttranslational Modifications of Proteins
Chapter 4. Moving Genetic Material to the Next Generation
Sex Cell Production and Meiosis
Special Focus: Mitosis Versus Meiosis
Mendelian Inheritance Patterns
Chapter 5. Heritability and the Basics of Genetic Variation
Familial Resemblance: Genes and Environment
Heritability as a Measure of Genetic Contribution
Special Focus: Twin and Family Studies
Types of Genetic Variation
Special Focus: Labeling Polymorphisms
How Genetic Variation Can Influence Physical Traits
How Do Polymorphisms Arise? Genetic Variation and Evolution
Chapter 6. Genetic Variation and Disease
Mendelian Disease Genetics
Special Focus: Muscular Dystrophy
Special Focus: Obesity as a Complex Trait
Gene x Environment Interactions
Gene x Gene Interactions
Chapter 7. Linkage Disequilibrium, Haplotype, and Environmental Interaction
Linkage Analysis in Families
Haplotype: Combinations of Neighboring Alleles
Special Focus: The International HapMap Project
Diplotype: Combinations of Haplotypes
Gene x Environment Interaction Revisited
An Introduction to Epigenetics
Part II. Research Design and Methods
Chapter 8. Getting Started: Basic Skills for Genetics Research
Is Genetic Variation Important for My Trait of Interest?
Interpreting Existing Literature
Identifying and Selecting Candidate Genes and Polymorphisms
Using Genome Databases
Chapter 9. Issues in Study Design and Analysis
How Genetics Necessarily Alters Study Design
Typical Study Designs
Special Focus: Race in Genetics
Prospective Versus Retrospective
Interpretation of Results: Association versus Cause and Effect
Chapter 10. Basic Laboratory Methods in Genetics
DNA from Blood or Cheek Cells
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Genotyping with Restriction Enzymes
Genotyping with Fluorescent Tags
Special Focus: DNA Microarrays
Part III. Current Findings and Extensions of Genetics Research
Chapter 11. Current Research Findings in the Genetics of Exercise Science and Health
Overview of Current Findings
Special Focus: The Human Gene Map for Performance and Health-Related Fitness Phenotypes
ACTN3 and Muscular Performance
ApoE and Cognitive Impairment
ACE and Sport Performance
Myostatin and Muscle Mass
Chapter 12. Personalized Medicine
Genetics and Complex Disease Revisited
Promise and Limitations of Personalized Medicine
Special Focus: Pharmacogenomics
Genetics in Nutrition and Exercise Prescription
Genetics in Disease Prevention
Chapter 13. Ethical Challenges in Genetics and Society
Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomics Gene Therapy for Disease Treatment
Special Focus: Stem Cells
Genetics in Sport: Genetic Testing and Gene Doping for Performance
Appendix A: Answers to Review Questions Appendix B: Evolution and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
About the Author
An introductory or supplemental text for health or exercise science students needing a deeper understanding of genetics than what is found in standard exercise physiology textbooks; also a reference for exercise physiologists, exercise scientists, and health and medical professionals.
Stephen M. Roth, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland, where he teaches courses in genetics and exercise science and health. He has extensive training in both exercise science and human genetics, and he directs the Functional Genomics Laboratory, where he maintains a research program dedicated to understanding the role of genetics in the contexts of aging, health, and exercise.
Dr. Roth has more than 45 peer-reviewed publications in scholarly journals, many of which are in the areas of genetics, health, and exercise. In 2005, the American College of Sports Medicine presented him with a New Investigator Award recognizing his work in genetics and exercise physiology. He also has an award from the National Institutes of Health to further his training in genetic epidemiology, extending his existing training in exercise physiology and human genetics.
Dr. Roth is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Physiological Society, and the American Society of Human Genetics. He is an assistant editor for Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews.