Weight training equipment intimidates some older adults. For others, budget constraints make membership in a fitness facility or the purchase of strength training equipment impractical. The exercise procedures described in this chapter should enhance your clients’ strength training experiences and reduce the likelihood of injury, and they are inexpensive.
Over two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004), with many estimates even higher (ACSM 2010).Fortunately, sensible strength training can remediate this situation (Campbell et al. 1994; Westcott 2009).
Bring the benefits of strength training to seniors—regardless of their
fitness levels—with Fitness Professional's Guide toStrength
Training Older Adults, Second Edition. This resource contains the
information and tools you need to educate, motivate, and assist older
adults in committing to and benefiting from individualized strength
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Bring the benefits of strength training to seniors—regardless of their fitness levels—with Fitness Professional's Guide to Strength Training Older Adults, Second Edition. This resource contains the information and tools you need to educate, motivate, and assist older adults in committing to and benefiting from individualized strength training programs.
Baechle and Westcott, leading authorities in fitness and strength training, offer information and guidance based on their combined 50-plus years of experience as strength training athletes, coaches, instructors, and researchers. The authors’ summaries of current research will update your knowledge of the specific health benefits of strength training for senior populations, including those with chronic conditions. Guidelines for senior strength training provide a basis for your program design, and recommendations for program modifications will assist you in constructing strength training programs that meet each client’s needs, abilities, and limitations.
Previously published as Strength Training for Seniors, this new edition has been retooled to assist health and fitness instructors at health clubs, YMCAs, community centers, nursing homes, retirement communities, and other organizations in helping older adults obtain the far-reaching benefits of strength training. Fitness Professional's Guide to Strength Training Older Adults includes these updates:
A new chapter on sport conditioning programs, which provides specific strength training exercises to boost performance and reduce risk of injury for older runners, cyclists, swimmers, skiers, golfers, tennis players, rowers, rock climbers, hikers, softball players, and triathletes
Updated research regarding program design and performance for special populations, including seniors with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, low-back pain, balance issues, arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, frailty, and poststroke impairments
Updated nutrition information and specific nutrition guidelines to help seniors properly fuel their bodies for aerobic exercise, muscle building, and daily living
Precise illustrations and biomechanically sound instructions for exercises that use resistance machines, free weights, body weight, elastic bands, and balls help you review proper techniques and provide your clients with clear explanations. Unique teaching scripts offer strategies for communicating information that will help your clients avoid errors that cause injury or reduce the effectiveness of the exercise.
Use the sample 10-week workout to help your beginning clients establish a foundation of muscle strength to improve everyday tasks and increase cardiovascular capability. You’ll also find intermediate and advanced workout programs focused on increasing muscle size, strength, and endurance along with specific considerations for older adults at each fitness level. In addition, practical methods for client assessment assist you in measuring muscle strength, hip and trunk flexibility, and body composition; guidelines also help your clients assess their own progress.
Featuring principles, protocols, and adaptations, Fitness Professional's Guide to Strength Training Older Adults has everything you need for designing and directing sensible strength training programs for seniors. Information is presented progressively, making it easy to apply for fitness and health care professionals with varied backgrounds and experiences. In addition, numerous references for each topic offer starting points for further study, and tables, figures, and logs provide guidance in exercise program design and education for your clients.
Substantial research has shown that strength training can reverse many of the degenerative processes associated with aging and reduce the risk and severity of several health problems common among older adults. Use the information and tools in Fitness Professional's Guide to Strength Training Older Adults to help your senior clients understand the benefits of strength training, overcome their intimidation, and commit to a training program that will enable them to enjoy a more vibrant and active lifestyle.
Chapter 1: Why Seniors Should Strength Train
Depression and Self-Confidence
Visual and Auditory Impairments
Chapter 2: Training Principles and Teaching Strategies
Principle 1: Training Frequency
Principle 2: Number of Sets
Principle 3: Training Resistance or Loads
Principle 4: Number of Repetitions
Principle 5: Exercise Selection
Principle 6: Training Progression
Chapter 3: Exercise Execution Procedures and Instruction
Full Range of Movement
Controlled Movement Speed
Warm-Up and Cool-Down
Machine and Free Weight Exercise Instruction
Chapter 4: Basic Workout Programs
Recommended Load Assignments for Exercises
Weeks 1 and 2
Weeks 3 and 4
Weeks 5 and 6
Weeks 7 and 8
Weeks 9 and 10
Chapter 5: Intermediate and Advanced Workout Programs
Intermediate Training Considerations
Advanced Training Considerations
Chapter 6: Alternative Exercises and Programs
Planning Your Program
Guidelines for Reps, Sets, and Rest Periods
Elastic Resistance Exercises
Chapter 7: Progress Assessment
Assessing Hip and Trunk Flexibility
Chapter 8:Working With Special Populations
Depression and Self-Confidence
Visual and Auditory Impairments
Chapter 9: Sport-Specific Strength Training
Rock Climbers and Hikers
Chapter 10: Nutrition for Senior Clients
The Basic Nutrients
Three Steps to Better Nutrition
Energy for Exercise and Protein for Muscle Building
Eating, Exercise, and Encouragement
An applied reference for strength and conditioning specialists, personal
trainers, and fitness professionals at health clubs, YMCAs, community
centers, nursing homes, retirement communities, and other organizations.
A text for courses, seminars, or workshops on topics such as Fitness
Instruction of Older Adults, Issues in Older Adult Fitness, Strength
Training for Seniors, Guidelines for Physical Activity for Older Adults,
or Balance, Mobility, and Fall Prevention. Also a resource for older
adults interested in designing age-appropriate individualized strength
Thomas R. Baechle, EdD, CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D, competed in
Olympic-style weightlifting and powerlifting and was an instructor of
weight training and a strength and conditioning coach for 20 years.
Currently he is a professor and chair of the exercise science department
at Creighton University, where he directed phase III cardiac
rehabilitation for 16 years. He is a cofounder and past president of the
National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) and for 20 years
was the executive director of the NSCA Certification Commission.
Baechle has been recognized as the force behind the creation of the
Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist and NSCA-Certified
Personal Trainer examination programs. He has received awards for
outstanding teaching and service from Creighton University, the NSCA’s
most coveted awards of Strength and Conditioning Professional of the
Year and Lifetime Achievement, and other awards from international
associations and organizations. Baechle also served on state and
regional boards associated with the American Alliance for Health,
Physical Education, Recreation and Dance and as president of the
National Organization of Competency Assurance, and he has served on
various other regional, national, and international boards. Baechle has
authored, coauthored, or edited 13 other books, including Weight
Training: Steps to Success, which has been translated into 10 languages
and has sold almost 200,000 copies.
Wayne L. Westcott, PhD, CSCS, is fitness research director at
Quincy College in Quincy, Massachusetts. As an athlete, coach, teacher,
professor, researcher, author, and speaker, Westcott has more than 38
years of experience in strength training and is recognized as a leading
authority on fitness.
For over 25 years, Westcott has focused on strength training instruction
and research for adults 50 to 100 years of age. His landmark study at
the John Knox Village Nursing Home increased awareness of the benefits
of strength training for seniors with various health conditions and
fitness levels and led to the implementation of strength training
centers in more than 500 nursing homes.
Westcott has served as a strength training consultant for numerous
national organizations and programs, including Nautilus, the President's
Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, the National School Fitness
Foundation, the International Association of Fitness Professionals, the
American Council on Exercise, the YMCA of the USA, and the National
Youth Sports Safety Foundation. Through his work with these
organizations, he has also received numerous awards, including the Hall
of Fame Award from the International Fitness Professionals Association
(IFPA), Fitness Industry Leader Award from the National Strength
Professionals Association, the Massachusetts Governor's Council Lifetime
Achievement Award, the IDEA Lifetime Achievement Award, the IFPA
Lifetime Achievement Award, the President's Council Healthy American
Fitness Leader Award, and the Alumni Recognition Award from Pennsylvania
Westcott has authored or coauthored 24 books on strength training,
including Building Strength & Stamina, StrengthTraining
for Seniors, and Complete Conditioning for Golf. In addition,
he has served on the editorial boards of The Physician and
Sportsmedicine, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, On-Site Fitness,
Prevention, Shape, Men's Health, Fitness, Club Industry, American
Fitness Quarterly, Nautilus, Bottom Line Women’s Health, and Fitness
Management. Westcott also serves on advisory boards for the
International Council on Active Aging and the National Association for
Health and Fitness. He is also an executive committee member for the New
England chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine.
Westcott lives in Abington, Massachusetts, with his wife, Claudia. He
enjoys staying physically active through running, cycling, and strength