NIMS provides guidance to plan and respond to incidents at sport facilities
Safety and security concerns are not unique to the United States. Countries across all continents have created, developed, and maintained safety and security organizations, policies, and procedures to address security issues and enhance the safety of their citizens.
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Though spectator and player security has always been a priority for sport and facility managers at all levels, large-scale threats such as terrorism or natural disasters have become even more critical management concerns. Proactive sport and facility managers understand the role they must take in working with local law enforcement, contracted security personnel, and their own employees to adequately plan for and respond to threats—both manmade and natural.
Security Management for Sports and Special Events: An Interagency Approach to Creating Safe Facilities presents a systematic approach to stadium and venue security. Unlike traditional risk management books that present guidelines to promote safety and discourage litigation in sport and recreation settings, Security Management for Sports and Special Events deals specifically with natural disasters, terrorism, crowd control problems, and other large-scale threats. As sport and facility managers seek to broaden their building management capabilities, this text offers detailed guidance in improving the quality, coordination, and responsiveness of security protocols within their facilities.
With this text, sport and facility managers examine the concerns and challenges to security and emergency planning for both sport and non-sport events held at their facilities. Security Management for Sports and Special Events offers an organized explanation of event security to support the planning, implementation, and communication of security and emergency plans to staff and game-day hires as well as the assessment of emergency preparation. Drawing on numerous examples from both in and out of sport, readers will consider the challenges, solutions, best practices, and prescriptions for coordinating the efforts of staff, law enforcement, and security personnel.
Readers will find an array of tools that assist in understanding and implementing the material presented:
Case studies at the end of each chapter and “Lessons Learned” sections that summarize and apply the information to a real-world scenario
Chapter goals and application questions that provide a clear map for the chapter and promote critical thinking of the issues
Sidebars throughout the text that provide examples of important current issues in sport and event security management
Reproducible checklists, forms, and additional resources that help in designing and implementing plans
More than 20 appendix items, including key guidelines, checklists, and needs assessments
Emphasizing interagency development and a team approach to sport event security management, Security Management for Sports and Special Events allows sport and facility managers to lessen risk, control insurance costs, and uphold the integrity of their facilities through security management procedures. The text is developed according to the requirements of the Department of Homeland Security’s National Incident Management System (NIMS) and serves as the manual for managers seeking to achieve the SESA Seal of Approval offered by the University of Southern Mississippi’s National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security (NCS4). Developed by the authors and the only dedicated research facility for sport security management, NCS4 is on the cutting edge of researching and assessing game-day operations for security and crisis management.
Security Management for Sports and Special Events is a practical resource for identifying and managing potential threats to fans’ and players’ safety. With proper protocols in place and a coordinated response, sport and facility professionals can ensure the safety of participants and spectators from terrorism, natural disasters, and other potential encounters.
Chapter 1. Safety and Security Environment for Sports and Special Events
Major Sport and Special Event Threats
Legal and Economic Implications
Sport Event Security Aware System: A Continuous Improvement Model
Case Study: Centennial Olympic Park Bombing
Chapter 2. Leadership and Multi-Agency Collaboration
Sport and Event Security Command Group
Problem Solving and Decision Making
Communication and Information Sharing
Case Study: Building Multi-Agency Collaboration
Chapter 3. Incident Management Systems
United States Department of Homeland Security
National Incident Management System Overview
National Response Framework (NRF) Overview
International and National Safety and Security Agencies
Case Study: Georgia Dome
Chapter 4. Risk Assessment for Sport and Event Venues
Risk Assessment Process
U.S. Department of Homeland Security Risk Self-Assessment Tool
Case Study: Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana
Chapter 5. Security Planning, Policies, and Protective Measures
Creating Plans for Risk Management
Game and Event-Day Plans
Case Study: Hillsborough Disaster
Chapter 6. Emergency Response and Recovery
Components of Emergency Management
Emergency Management Examples
Business Continuity Planning
Case Study: Continuity at Tulane University After Hurricane Katrina
Chapter 7. Training and Policy Implementation
Identifying Training Needs
Meeting Staffing Needs
Working With Volunteers
Case Study: ABC Security Company
Chapter 8. Exercises: Testing Your Plans
Types of Exercises
Steps in Exercise Project Management
Case Study: 2004 Summer Olympic Games
Chapter 9. The Future of Safety and Security Management for Sports and Special Events
Training and Education
Balancing Security and the Spectator Experience
Integrating Technology With Best Practices
Case Study: Fan Behavior
About the Authors
A reference for sport administrators, facility and event managers,
league and organization officials, and security-related contract or
A textbook for graduate students taking courses in sport event and sport
facility management, risk management, or sport law.
Stacey A. Hall, PhD, is associate director of the National Center
for Spectator Sports Safety and Security (NCS4) and an assistant
professor of sport management at the University of Southern Mississippi
(USM), where she developed a graduate-level emphasis in sport security
management for the master's program.
Hall's research on sport safety and security has been published in many
journals on sport management, homeland security, and emergency
management, and she has coauthored a textbook on global sport facility
operations management. Hall has presented at international and national
conferences and conducted invited presentations for U.S. federal and
state agencies, college athletic conferences, and professional sport
leagues, including Major League Soccer (MLS). She was also invited as a
contributing expert in sport security to the first international sport
security conference in Doha, Qatar, in 2011.
Hall has been the principal investigator on various external grant
awards from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security in order to develop
risk management curriculum for sport security personnel at NCAA
institutions, conduct risk assessments at college sport stadia, and
develop training programs for sport venue staff. She has also been
involved in several service projects, including development of a risk
assessment tool for U.S. sport stadia in conjunction with the Department
of Homeland Security and International Association of Assembly Managers
and development of a disaster mitigation plan post-Katrina for the
Mississippi Regional Housing Authority. Hall has completed training in
assessment of threat and risk through the National Emergency Response
and Rescue Training Center, training in terrorist bombing through New
Mexico Tech Energetic Materials and Testing Center, and training in
contingency planning of special events for public safety agencies
through the FEMA Emergency Management Institute.
A competitive soccer player, Hall was team captain for the Northern
Ireland international soccer team. She retired in 2008. Hall now resides
in Hattiesburg, Mississippi.
Walter E. Cooper, EdD, is professor emeritus and director of
training at the University of Southern Mississippi’s National Center for
Spectator Sport Safety and Security (NCS4). He holds certifications and
has completed training in incident response to terrorist bombings,
prevention and response to suicide bombing incidents, and incident
response to campus bombing incidents (New Mexico Tech University);
prevention, detection, and response to campus emergencies
(NCBRT-Louisiana State University); enhanced threat and risk assessment
(TEEX-Texas A&M University); and risk assessment methodology for
chemical facilities (Sandia National Labs RAM-CFTM).
His research on emergency management and risk facilitator management for
sporting events has most recently been published in the Journal of
Emergency Management and the Anser Homeland Security Institute:
Journal of HomelandSecurity. Cooper presents frequently on
issues of emergency training within school environments at all levels
(K-12 and collegiate).
Lou Marciani, EdD, is the director of the National Center for
Spectator Sports Safety and Security (NCS4) at the University of
Southern Mississippi. The NCS4 was founded with initial funding from the
Mississippi Office of Homeland Security as the country’s first academic
center dedicated to spectator sports safety and security research,
professional development, enhanced training, and outreach. At the NCS4,
Marciani works with professional sport leagues, the NCAA, national
collegiate directors of athletics, the private sector, and government
agencies in enhancing sport safety and security.
Marciani is the principal investigator for research funded by grants
through the Office of Homeland Security and U.S. Department of
Education. His work at NCS4 focuses on the development and
implementation of a sport risk management curriculum as well as a
decision support system for sport venues to include simulation modeling
for stadium evacuations.
Marciani’s extensive career in sport management includes serving as
intercollegiate athletic director at several universities and as
executive director of two national sport governing bodies. He is an
active speaker on sport safety and security at international and
national sport organization annual conferences. Marciani also serves as
a resource for the U.S. Office of Homeland Security on sport safety and
James A. McGee, MS, has 25 combined years of law enforcement
experience and 21 years as a special agent with the Federal Bureau of
Investigation (FBI). McGee is currently a senior consultant at the
National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security (NCS4) and an
adjunct professor in Department of Homeland Security studies at Tulane
University in New Orleans, Louisiana. McGee teaches security and
terrorism courses both at the university level and internationally. He
is regarded as an expert in security measures associated with venues of
mass gatherings, and he lectures frequently on this topic.
As an FBI special agent, McGee spent 16 years working in security
management for sporting events, including several Super Bowls and the
2004 Olympic Games. During his tenure he was the FBI supervisory special
agent for the New Orleans Division Joint Terrorism Task Force and the
FBI security coordinator for the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Athens,
In addition to his extensive field experience, McGee holds a master of
science degree in criminal justice from Virginia Commonwealth University
in Richmond, Virginia. As a Department of State Anti-Terrorism
Assistance instructor, he teaches courses in major events security
management and critical incident management. McGee is also the global
security consultant for ESPN, providing corporate security consultation
and surveillance operations for major sporting events such as Monday
Night Football, Sports Nation, and College Game Day.
In 2010, McGee received an Independent Publisher’s Book Award for his
true crime book Phase Line Green: The FCITalladega Hostage
Rescue. In his free time, McGee enjoys spending time with his
family, fitness training, and writing. He and his wife, Shawna, reside
in Pass Christian, Mississippi.