Failure to meet the standard is negligence, and the person proven negligent is liable for any damages caused by such negligence. The standard is not subject to a precise definition and is judged on a case-by-case basis.
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Based on real-life experiences, Risk Management in Outdoor and Adventure Programs: Scenarios of Accidents, Incidents, and Misadventures offers both students and professionals practice in applying risk management strategies to situations encountered in outdoor and adventure programs.
Written by Aram Attarian, an experienced professor and professional in outdoor and adventure recreation, Risk Management in Outdoor and Adventure Programs presents a systematic model for determining why an incident happened and what could be done to prevent a repeat occurrence. More than 50 real-life scenarios represent various situations encountered in outdoor and adventure programming, such as peanut allergies, bridge jumping, stalking by mountain lions, and lightning strikes. These scenarios offer guidance in analyzing hazardous situations and applying appropriate strategies in safety and risk management. Each scenario is followed by questions that can guide discussion or promote research in concepts or policies that are important to outdoor and adventure programming.
Accidents and mishaps are a reality in outdoor and adventure programs. Applying risk management strategies to the scenarios in Risk Management in Outdoor and Adventure Programs gives outdoor adventure leaders increased knowledge of the inherent risks of their profession as well as their legal responsibilities in programming, leadership, and management. This text can help leaders and their participants enjoy safe and successful adventures in the great outdoors.
Chapter 2. Risk Management Legal Terms and Concepts
Duty to Warn
Chapter 3. Program Staff and Participants
Instructors and Guides
Responding to Emergencies
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Poor Route Finding
Staying on Schedule
Medical History Can Make a Difference
Inappropriate Physical Contact
Waterfall Presents a Danger
Client Injured While Rafting
Outing Turns Tragic
Injury on the Challenge Course
Day Hike Turns Into Overnight
Training Exercise Goes Wrong
Demonstration Goes Wrong
Instructors Charged With Murder
Scout Leaders Say They Got No Warning
Lightning Strikes Climbers
Lightning Strikes Campers
Man Struck by Lightning on Solo Hike
Excessive Heat Can Kill
Avalanche Kills Skiers
Mountain Lion Stalks Group
Black Bear Problem
Smile for the Camera
Proceed With Caution When River Crossing
Student Drowns in a Stream Crossing
Drowning in a Forest Pool
Student Drowns After Jumping Into Backcountry Swimming Hole
Rescue Teams Save Church Group
Open Canoes Over Open Water
Chapter 5. Technology
Technology and Adventure and Guided Programs
Nontechnical and Technical Equipment
Personal Protection Equipment
Stranded Hiker Uses Personal Locator Beacon to Summon Help
Hikers Evacuated After Three SPOT Activations in Three Days
Anchor Fails, Student Sues
Fall From Climbing Wall
Instructor’s Inattention Blamed for Student’s Death
Repair Kits Can Be Deadly
Automated External Defibrillator in the Woods
Stove Fueling Incident Causes Serious Burns
Boiling Water Fills Boot
Boiling Water Scalds
Narrow Road Proves to Be a Challenge
Road Conditions Create Problem for Van Driver
Icy Road Conditions
Trailer Towing Presents Risks
About the Author
Primary text for undergraduate outdoor and adventure courses.
Supplemental text for courses on the technical, programming, and
leadership aspects of outdoor and adventure recreation. Reference for
outdoor and adventure program leaders as well as K-12 teachers.
Aram Attarian, PhD, is an associate professor in the department
of parks, recreation, and tourism management at North Carolina State
University in Raleigh. He is the owner of the risk management
consultation firm Adventureprogrammanagement.com and serves as the
director of the National State Park Leadership School.
Attarian has over 30 years of experience in adventure education and
outdoor leadership working with a range of individuals and settings,
including adjudicated youth, college and university programs,
businesses, camps, and Outward Bound. His most significant experiences
have been with North Carolina Outward Bound (NCOB), where he worked as
an instructor, climber, and course director for over 25 years.
Currently, Attarian serves on the NCOB board of directors and chairs its
safety committee. He is also a member of the American Alpine Club Safety
Advisory Council and is a regional contributor to Accidents in North
American Mountaineering. In his free time, Attarian enjoys rock
climbing, outdoor living, and working on his hobby farm in western North
Carolina. He resides in Raleigh.