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This book is the first major text on the kinematics of human motion and is written by one of the world`s leading authorities on the subject.
The book begins with careful descriptions of how to study human body position and displacement without regard to time, velocity, or acceleration. Then Dr. Zatsiorsky examines differential kinematics of human motion by "adding" the variables of velocity and acceleration in simple and complex biokinematic chains and by adding the variable of three-dimensional movement to the study of multilink chains. The book includes the three-dimensional analysis of 26 specific human joints, from the temporomandibular joint to the joints of the midfoot.
While the book is advanced and assumes a knowledge of calculus and matrix algebra, the emphasis is on explaining movement concepts, not mathematical formulae. The text features 23 refreshers of the basic concepts and many practical examples. The book is well illustrated and clearly written as the author skillfully integrates mechanical models with biological experiments.
The foremost biomechanist of the former Soviet Union, and a professor at The Pennsylvania State University since 1991, Vladimir Zatsiorsky shares his 35 years of research and teaching in biomechanics in what may well be the most important biomechanics book of the 1990s.
Notations and Conventions
Chapter 1. Kinematic Geometry of Human Motion: Body Position and Displacement
1.1 Defining body location
1.1.1 The coordinate method
1.1.2 Cartesian versus oblique coordinates
1.2 Defining body orientation
1.2.1 Fixation of a local system with a rigid body
1.2.2 Fixation of a somatic system with a human body
1.2.3 Indirect method of defining body orientation
1.2.4 What is "body rotation"?
1.2.5 Describing position and displacement
1.2.6 Advantages and disadvantages of the various angular conventions
1.2.7 Determining body position from experimental recordings
1.3 Three-dimensional representation of human movement: Eye movement
1.3.1 Eye orientation
1.3.2 Motions actually made by the human eye (Donders` law and Listing`s law)
1.3.3 Rotation surfaces. The laws obeyed by the pointing head and arm movements
1.5 Questions for Review
Chapter 2. Kinematic Geometry of Human Motion: Body Posture
2.1 Joint configuration
2.1.1 Technical and somatic systems
2.1.2 The clinical reference system
2.1.3 Globographic representation
2.1.4 Segment coordinate systems
2.1.5 Joint rotation convention
2.2 Kinematic chains
2.2.1 Degrees of freedom. Mobility of kinematic chains
2.2.2 Open kinematic chains: The end-effector mobility
2.2.3 Kinematics models and mobility of the human body
2.2.4 Constraints on human movements
2.2.5 Position analysis of kinematic chains
2.3 Biological solutions to kinematic problems
2.3.1 Internal representation of the immediate extrapersonal space
2.3.2 Internal representation of the body posture
2.5 Questions for Review
Chapter 3. Differential Kinematics of Human Movement
3.1 Velocity of a kinematic chain
3.1.1 Planar movement
3.1.2 Motion in three dimensions
3.2 Acceleration of a kinematic chain
3.2.1 Acceleration of a planar two-link chain
3.2.2 Acceleration of a two-link chain in three dimensions
3.2.3 Acceleration of a multi-link chain
3.2.4 Jerk and snap
3.3 Biological solutions to the problems of differential kinematics: Control of movement velocity
3.3.1 Control of approach: The tau hypothesis
3.3.2 Control of velocity in reaching movement
3.5 Questions for Review
Chapter 4. Joint Geometry and Joint Kinematics
4.1 Intrajoint kinematics
4.1.1 Articular surfaces and types of joints
4.1.2 Movement of articular surfaces
4.1.3 Geometry and algebra of intra-articular motion
4.1.4 Ligaments and joint motion: A joint as a mechanical linkage
4.2 Centers and axes of rotation
4.2.1 Planar joint movement
4.2.2 Three-dimensional joint movement
4.4 Questions for Review
Chapter 5. Kinematics of Individual Joints
5.1 Nominal joint axes
5.2 The joints of the foot
5.2.1 Metatarsophalangeal joints. The foot as a two-speed construction
5.2.2 The joints of the midfoot
5.3 The ankle joint complex
5.3.1 The talocrural joint
5.3.2 The subtalar joint
5.4 The knee
5.4.1 The tibiofemoral joint
5.4.2 The patellofemoral joint
5.5 The hip joint and the pelvic girdle
5.6 The spine
5.6.1 Movement in synarthroses
5.6.2 The lumbar and thoracic spine
5.6.3 The cervical region: Head and neck movement
5.6.4 The rib cage
5.7 The shoulder complex
5.7.1 Individual joints
5.7.2 Movement of the shoulder complex: The scapulohumeral rhythm
5.8 The elbow complex
5.8.1 Flexion and extension
5.8.2 Supination and pronation
5.9 The wrist
5.10 The joints of the hand
5.10.1 The joints of the thumb
5.10.2 The joints of the fingers
5.11 The temporomandibular joint
5.13 Questions for Review
About the Author
Textbook for graduate or upper undergraduate courses in biomechanics. Reference text for biomechanists, sports biomechanists, motor behavior specialists, ergonomists, orthopedic surgeons, neuroscience specialists, physical therapists, and rehabilitation specialists.
Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky, PhD, is a world-renowned expert in the biomechanics of human motion. He has been a professor in the Department of Kinesiology at The Pennsylvania State University since 1991. He also is the director of the university's biomechanics laboratory.
Prior to coming to North America in 1990, Dr. Zatsiorsky served for 18 years as professor and department chair of the Department of Biomechanics at the Central Institute of Physical Culture in Moscow. For 26 years he served as consultant to the national Olympic teams of the USSR. He also was director of the USSR's All-Union Research Institute of Physical Culture for three years.
In addition to his academic pursuits in the classroom, laboratory, and field, Dr. Zatsiorsky is a prolific writer who has authored or coauthored more than 240 scientific papers and several books on various aspects of biomechanics. In recognition of his achievements, he has received several awards, including the Geoffrey Dyson Award from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sport (the society's highest honor) and the USSR's National Gold Medal for the Best Scientific Research in Sport in 1976 and 1982.
Dr. Zatsiorsky is a member of the American Society of Biomechanics and the International Society of Biomechanics.
He and his wife Rita live in State College, Pennsylvania. They have two children and two grandchildren.