Learn the differing definitions of play, recreation, leisure, and flow
The challenge in learning more about this field as a personal pursuit, professional career, or a combination of both is to grasp the size and significance of the world known as parks, recreation, and leisure.
Professionals should be prepared to serve the public
Parks and recreation services is a human services profession. The human services field has the objective of meeting human needs through an interdisciplinary knowledge base, focusing on prevention and remediation of problems and maintaining a commitment to improving the overall quality of life of those they serve.
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Recreation and leisure is a thriving industry with phenomenal growth, tremendous potential, and diverse career paths and options. Introduction to Recreation and Leisure, Second Edition, is a textbook designed for the first undergraduate course in a recreation or leisure program. With its 21st-century views of recreation and leisure services, it indicates future directions in the field and offers diverse international perspectives.
The second edition of Introduction to Recreation and Leisure
presents historical, philosophical, and social aspects of the industry;
offers fresh insights on community parks and recreation departments, youth and nonprofit agencies, commercial recreation, and tourism enterprises;
describes how recreation provides fun, enriching, and educational programs and services for people of all ages; and
exposes students to a variety of career options and supports them as they explore their interests and prepare for challenging careers in one of the leading industries of the 21st century.
Part I presents the history and philosophy of the field and its benefits to individuals and society. Part II introduces the sectors of the field and their delivery systems: parks, public recreation, nonprofit organizations, commercial recreation and tourism, therapeutic recreation, and unique groups. Part III presents the types of programming found in recreation and leisure services: sports; fitness, health, and wellness; outdoor and adventure recreation; and arts and culture. It includes a chapter on recreation and leisure as a profession and a chapter on international recreation.
In the second edition of Introduction to Recreation and Leisure, invited experts from around the world offer their perspectives on the industry. These authors are emerging and leading professionals and eminent scholars in leisure education. The new edition includes a web resource that supports students in the classroom as well as in the online setting with ways to explore the foundation of recreation and leisure and its opportunities for careers.
Part I. Foundations of Recreation and Leisure
Chapter 1. Power, Promise, Potential, and Possibilities of Parks, Recreation, and Leisure
Welcome to the World of Parks, Recreation, and Leisure
Definitions of Play, Recreation, Leisure, and Flow
Parks, Recreation, and Leisure: Everywhere, Everyone, All the Time
Values and Benefits of Parks, Recreation, and Leisure
Recreation and Leisure: The Less Desirable Side
Trends in Parks, Recreation, and Leisure Alternatives
Parks and Recreation: A Passion, a Pursuit, a Profession
Chapter 2. History of Recreation
M. Rebecca Genoe, Douglas Kennedy, and Jerome F. Singleton
Tracing the Roots of Leisure in Canada and the United States
Development of Recreation in the United States and Canada
Similarities Between Canada and the United States
Chapter 3. Philosophy and Leisure
Donald J. McLean
Why Does Philosophy Matter?
Metaphysics and Leisure
Epistemology and Leisure
Logic and Leisure
Aesthetics and Leisure
Ethics and Leisure
Plato’s Philosophy of Leisure
Aristotle’s Philosophy of Leisure
Contemporary Philosophy of Leisure
Solving Ethical Dilemmas in Leisure Services
Chapter 4. Leisure and Recreation for Individuals in Society
Daniel G. Yoder and Juan Tortosa Martínez
Leisure as a Complex Social Phenomenon
Similarity and Diversity in Recreation and Leisure
Leisure, Recreation, and Gender
Leisure, Ethnicity, and Race
Leisure, Recreation, and Religion
Leisure, Recreation, and Socioeconomic Class
Benefits and Constraints of Leisure
Good and Bad Leisure and Recreation
Implications for Professionals
Part II. Leisure and Recreation as a Multifaceted Delivery System
Chapter 5. Leisure Service Delivery Systems
David N. Emanuelson
Professional Preparation for Leisure Service Delivery
Chapter 6. Parks and Protected Areas in Canada and the United States
Paul F.J. Eagles and Jeffrey C. Hallo
History of Parks in Canada
Park Systems of Canada
History of Parks in the United States
Park Systems of the United States
International Treaties and Protected Area Designations and Parks
Comparing Canada and the United States
Challenges and Trends for the 21st Century
Chapter 7. Public Recreation
Tod Stanton, Susan Markham-Starr, and Jane Hodgkinson
Public Parks and Recreation in the United States and Canada
Historical Overview of Public Recreation in the United States
Historical Overview of Public Recreation in Canada
Delivery Systems in Public Recreation
Partnerships: Connections to the Community
Faces of Public Recreation
Chameleon Profession: Ever Changing Societal Issues and Needs
Political Realities: No Pain, No Gain
Benefits of Recreation
Special Recreation History
Accessibility and Universal Design in Special Recreation Services
Special Recreation and Accessibility
Accessiblity and Inclusion
Special Recreation Associations
Special Recreation Continuum of Services
Specialized Recreation Programs
Future of Special Recreation Associations
Chapter 8. Nonprofit Sector
Robert F. Ashcraft
Nonprofit Sector in the United States and Canada
Types of National and Community-Based Nonprofit Recreation Organizations
The Professional in Nonprofit Organizations
Challenges and Opportunities for the Future
Chapter 9. For-Profit Sector: Recreation, Event, and Tourism Enterprises
Robert E. Pfister and Patrick T. Tierney
Three Common Attributes
RET Industry Model
Considering an RET Career
Trends and Challenges
Chapter 10. Therapeutic Recreation
Frances Stavola Daly and Robin Kunstler
What Is Therapeutic Recreation?
History of Therapeutic Recreation
Therapeutic Recreation Practice Models
Settings for Therapeutic Recreation Services
Therapeutic Recreation Specialist
Chapter 11. Unique Groups
Julia Wallace Carr, Brenda Robertson, Rebecca Lesnik, John Byl, Jeffrey Ferguson, Carol J. Potter, and Laurie Ogilvie
History of Campus Recreation
Benefits of a Campus Recreation Program
Trends in Campus Recreation
Introduction to the Correctional System
Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Correctional Recreation
Correctional Recreation Professional
Trends and Issues
Differences Within Faith Traditions
Differences Among Faith Traditions
Employment in Faith-Based Recreation
Worksite Recreation and Health Promotion
History of Worksite Recreation and Health Promotion
Benefits, Programs, and Services
Worksite Recreation and Health Promotion Trends
Recreation in the Armed Forces
Military Versus Civilian Recreation
United States Armed Forces
Canadian Armed Forces
Military Recreation Program Areas
Chapter 12. Leisure and Recreation Across the Life Span
Lynn A. Barnett and Joel A. Blanco
Infancy: From Baby to Toddler
Early Childhood: Preschool Years
Middle and Late Childhood: Elementary School Years
Adolescence: Teenage Years
Emerging and Early Adulthood: 20s and 30s
Middle Adulthood: 40s and 50s
Late Adulthood: Senior Years
Part III. Delivering Recreation and Leisure Services
Chapter 13. Program Delivery System
Diane C. Blankenship
Program Delivery History
Mission and Outcomes
Leadership Within the Program Delivery System
Chapter 14. Recreational Sport Management
Craig M. Ross and H. Joey Gray
Examining Sport Management From a Recreational Perspective
Defining Recreational Sport
Five Programming Areas of Recreational Sport Management
Scope of Participation in Recreational Sport
Trends in Recreational Sport Management
International Participation in Recreational Sports
Chapter 15. Health, Wellness, and Quality of Life
Terrance Robertson, Matthew Symonds, Michael Muehlenbein, and Clifford Robertson
The Wellness Perspective
Quality of Life, Health, and Healthy Communities
Chapter 16. Outdoor and Adventure Recreation
Alan Ewert and Franklin Vernon
Concepts Related to Outdoor and Adventure Recreation
Concepts Related to Outdoor Adventure Education
History of Outdoor and Adventure Recreation in Canada and the United States
Settings, Delivery Systems, and Participants in Recreation
Professional Careers in Outdoor and Adventure Recreation
Benefits and Outcomes of Outdoor Recreation and Adventure
Outdoor Adventure Education Programming and Professional Careers
Emerging Trends and Issues
Chapter 17. Arts and Culture
Arts and Culture as Part of Recreation and Leisure
Meanings of Arts and Culture: Organizations and Participants
Benefits of Arts and Cultural Recreation Opportunities
Evolution of Arts and Cultural Programming
Types of Arts and Cultural Organizations
Contemporary Practices in Arts and Culture
Chapter 18. The Nature of Recreation and Leisure as a Profession
Denise M. Anderson
Value of the Profession and Benefits to the Professional
Characteristics of the Recreation and Leisure Services Profession
Nature of the Profession
Career Positioning: A Nine-Step Process
Changes in the Field: Taste the Excitement
Chapter 19. International Perspectives on Recreation and Leisure
Holly Donohoe, Arianne C. Reis, Alcyane Marinho, Jinyang Deng, and Huimei Liu International Overview
Leisure and the Internet
Leisure Development and Advocacy
Leisure and Youth Leadership
Recreation and Leisure in Brazil
Historical Development of Recreation and Leisure in Brazil
Types of Programs, Services, and Populations
Demand and Future Growth
Trends and Issues
Recreation and Leisure in China
A Brief History of China’s Leisure Development
Recreation Opportunities in China
Challenges and Trends for the Future
About the Contributors
Text for undergraduate-level introductory course to recreation and leisure or for those considering the field as a career choice.
Denise M. Anderson, PhD, is an associate professor and coordinator of graduate studies in the department of parks, recreation, and tourism management at Clemson University.
Robert F. Ashcraft, PhD, is executive director of the Lodestar Center for Philanthropy and Nonprofit Innovation and an associate professor in the School of Community Resources and Development at Arizona State University.
Lynn A. Barnett, PhD, is an associate professor in the department of recreation, sport, and tourism at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Joel A. Blanco, MS, is a doctoral candidate in recreation, sport, and tourism at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Diane C. Blankenship, EdD, is an associate professor at Frostburg State University in Frostburg, Maryland.
John Byl, PhD, is the president of Canadian Intramural Recreation Association (CIRA) Ontario and a professor of physical education at Redeemer University College in Ancaster, Ontario.
Gaylene Carpenter, EdD, is associate professor emerita and former director of the arts and administration program at the University of Oregon.
Jinyang Deng, PhD, is associate professor in the recreation, parks, and tourism resources program at West Virginia University.
Holly Donohoe, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of tourism, recreation, and sport management at the University of Florida.
Paul F.J. Eagles, PhD, is a professor specializing in environmental planning at the University of Waterloo in Canada.
David N. Emanuelson, PhD, is president and CEO of Impact Planning and a partner at the Public Research Group.
Dr. Alan Ewert, PhD, is a distinguished and titled professor at Indiana University. He is the holder of the Patricia and Joel Meier Endowed Chair in Outdoor Leadership and serves as the director of the Leisure Research Institute in the department of recreation, park, and tourism studies.
Jeffrey Ferguson, EdD, is an associate professor at Northwest Missouri State University, where he has served as the recreation curriculum coordinator for the past 25 years.
M. Rebecca Genoe, PhD, is an assistant professor in the faculty of kinesiology and health studies at the University of Regina.
H. Joey Gray, PhD, is an associate professor in the department of health and human performance and program manager of leisure, sport, and tourism studies at Middle Tennessee State University.
Dr. Jeffrey C. Hallo, PhD, is an assistant professor in the department of parks, recreation, and tourism management at Clemson University.
Jane Hodgkinson, MS, was the executive director of the Western DuPage Special Recreation Association (WDSRA) for 30 years until her retirement in 2011.
Douglas Kennedy, EdD, CPRP, is a professor in the department of recreation and leisure studies at Virginia Wesleyan College in Norfolk, Virginia.
Robin Kunstler, ReD, CTRS, is a professor in the department of health sciences and the director of the recreation education and therapeutic recreation programs at Lehman College of the City University of New York.
Rebecca Lesnik, MS, CTRS, is a practicing recreation therapist currently working for the Department of Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System and is assigned to the Homeless Veterans Rehabilitation Program.
Huimei Liu, PhD, is an associate professor in the School of International Studies at Zhejiang University in China. She is also a researcher in the Asia Pacific Centre for the Education and Study of Leisure at Zhejiang University.
Alcyane Marinho, PhD, is a lecturer in the physical education department at Santa Catarina State University (Udesc) in Brazil.
Susan Markham-Starr, PhD, is professor emerita in the School of Recreation Management and Kinesiology at Acadia University in Wolfville, Nova Scotia.
Donald J. McLean, PhD, is a professor and coordinator in the department of recreation, park, and tourism administration at Western Illinois University–Quad Cities in Moline, Illinois.
Michael Muehlenbein, PhD, MsPH, MPhil, is an assistant professor of anthropology at Indiana University. He is also affiliated with Indiana’s program in international studies, the Center for Research in Environmental Sciences, and the Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change.
Laurie Ogilvie, MA, is a national manager in policy and program development with the Canadian Forces personnel and family support services of the Department of National Defence.
Ellen O’Sullivan, PhD, serves as the chair of the Center for Public Recreation and Parks, a nonprofit organization focused on providing information and data leading to the long-term sustainability of the movement.
Robert E. Pfister, PhD, is a retired professor in the department of recreation and tourism management at Vancouver Island University (VIU) in Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, where he currently serves as an adjunct faculty member.
Carol J. Potter, BS, is a senior program analyst in the Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) Policy Directorate in the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Community and Family Policy.
Arianne C. Reis, PhD, is a research fellow with the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management at Southern Cross University, Australia.
Brenda Robertson, PhD, is a professor in the School of Recreation Management and Kinesiology at Acadia University in Wolfville, Nova Scotia.
Clifford Robertson, BA, earned his degree in kinesiology exercise science from Cornell College. While at Cornell, Clifford was commissioner of the intramurals program for two years.
Dr. Terrance Robertson, PhD, is a professor and chair of the department of health and human services at Northwest Missouri State University.
Craig M. Ross, ReD, is a professor in the department of recreation, park, and tourism studies at Indiana University.
Jerome F. Singleton, PhD, CTRS, is a professor in the recreation and leisure studies department in the School of Health and Human Performance at Dalhousie University.
Tod Stanton, MS, has two decades of professional experience in the field of recreation, including working for an Illinois park district. He holds a master’s degree in recreation administration from George Williams College of Aurora University.
Frances Stavola Daly, EdD, CTRS, CPRP, is an associate professor and the recreation administration program coordinator in the department of physical education, recreation, and health at Kean University in New Jersey.
Dr. Matthew Symonds, EdD, is an assistant professor in the department of health and human services at Northwest Missouri State University.
Patrick T. Tierney, PhD, is a professor in the department of recreation, parks, and tourism at San Francisco State University.
Juan Tortosa Martínez, PhD, is an assistant professor in physical activity and sport science at the University of Alicante, Spain.
Franklin Vernon, MS, is currently a doctoral student at Indiana University, where he focuses his teaching and research on experiential learning and adventure education.
Julia Wallace Carr, EdD, is a senior associate director at University Recreation and associate professor in sport and recreation management at James Madison University.
Daniel G. Yoder, PhD, is a professor in the recreation, park, and tourism department at Western Illinois University in Macomb.