Each of us develops a personal view of how motivation works, our own model on what motivates people. We are likely to do this by learning what motivates us and by observing how other people are motivated. For instance, if someone has a physical education teacher she likes and believes is successful, she will probably try to use or emulate many of the same motivational strategies that the teacher uses.
Although this chapter focuses on the influence of exercise on psychological well-being, many highly competitive athletes confront psychological issues when they transition out of sport. Much has been written and many models have been developed regarding the psychological issues that occur when transitioning out of competitive sport (Alferman & Stambulova, 2007; Lavalle, Park, & Tod, 2013; Stambulova, Alfermann, Statler, & Cote, 2009).
In addition to stress, sport psychologists working with injured athletes have identified certain attitudes that predispose players to injury. Rotella and Heyman (1986) observed that attitudes held by some coaches - such as "Act tough and always give 110%" or "If you’re injured, you’re worthless" - can increase the probability of athlete injury.
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As the leading text in sport and exercise psychology, Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Sixth Edition With Web Study Guide, provides a thorough introduction to key concepts in the field. This text offers both students and new practitioners a comprehensive view of sport and exercise psychology, drawing connections between research and practice and capturing the excitement of the world of sport and exercise.
The internationally respected authors have incorporated feedback from teachers and students to create a text that builds on previous editions, making the material accessible to readers. In-depth learning aids have been refreshed, including chapter objectives and summaries, sidebars, key terms, key points, anecdotes, and discussion questions to help students think more critically about applying the material. Other updates to the sixth edition include the following:
More than 40 new video clips integrated into the web study guide to better demonstrate the core concepts addressed in the book
Additional emphasis on hot topics, including mindfulness, cultural diversity, ethics and professional issues, and transitions in sport
New ancillaries to help instructors teach their courses, including an image bank, chapter quizzes, and more than 122 instructor videos
Updated references, including more contemporary sources
The text provides students with a unique learning experience—taking them on a journey through the origins and goals, key concepts, research development, and career options available in the field—in seven parts that may be studied in any sequence. Following an introduction to the field, the text then shifts focus to personal factors that affect performance and psychological development in sport, physical education, and exercise settings. Situational factors that influence behavior, group interaction and processes, and the use of psychological techniques to help people perform more effectively are covered, as well as the roles psychological factors play in health and exercise. The final section deals with topics of psychological development and well-being that are important to both society and sport and exercise psychology, including children’s psychological development through sport participation, aggression in sport, and moral development and good sporting behavior in sport and physical activity contexts.
The updated web study guide serves as an important learning tool to support the educational journey. With more than 100 engaging activities, it works directly with the text in guiding students to complete the related activities for each chapter and apply knowledge gained from the text. The study guide activities require students to do the following:
Use actual sport and exercise psychology instruments to assess their skills.
Determine how to respond to real-life scenarios (with short answers or essays).
Review research studies and experiments.
Search the Internet for relevant information.
Apply and test their understanding of principles and concepts of sport and exercise psychology.
Many of the study guide activities offer compelling audio and video clips that provide an interactive look at how sport psychology consultants communicate with athletes and coaches to improve athletic experiences. These clips feature esteemed experts from the field discussing course concepts that they have studied and refined during their professional careers. To further emphasize practical application, portfolio activities can be integrated through a full semester, turning course units into a unified whole that builds upon itself for greater understanding of the field.
To aid instructors, instructor ancillaries have been updated and expanded. The instructor guide, test package, and presentation package are now supplemented with an image bank, gradable chapter quizzes, and instructor videos, all available at www.HumanKinetics.com/FoundationsOfSportAndExercisePsychology.
The updated sixth edition of Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology continues to ensure that students are well equipped to enter the field of sport psychology and are prepared for the challenges they may encounter as well as the possibilities. This text offers an enhanced and varied learning package to assist students in understanding the sport psychology field.
Part I. Beginning Your Journey
Chapter 1. Welcome to Sport and Exercise Psychology
Defining Sport and Exercise Psychology
Specializing in Sport Psychology
Distinguishing Between Two Specialties
Reviewing the History of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Focusing on Sport and Exercise Psychology Around the World
Bridging Science and Practice
Choosing From Many Sport and Exercise Psychology Orientations
Understanding Present and Future Trends
Part II. Learning About Participants
Chapter 2. Personality and Sport
Understanding Personality Structure
Studying Personality From Five Viewpoints
Using Psychological Measures
Focusing on Personality Research
Examining Cognitive Strategies and Success
Identifying Your Role in Understanding Personality
Chapter 3. Motivation
Reviewing Three Approaches to Motivation
Building Motivation With Five Guidelines
Developing a Realistic View of Motivation
Understanding Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness
Identifying Four Theories of Achievement Motivation
Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness
Using Achievement Motivation in Professional Practice
Chapter 4. Arousal, Stress, and Anxiety
Defining Arousal and Anxiety
Measuring Arousal and Anxiety
Defining Stress and Understanding the Stress Process
Identifying Sources of Stress and Anxiety
Connecting Arousal and Anxiety to Performance
Applying Knowledge to Professional Practice
Part III. Understanding Sport and Exercise Environments
Chapter 5. Competition and Cooperation
Defining Competition and Cooperation
Viewing Competition As a Process
Reviewing Studies of Competition and Cooperation
Determining Whether Competition Is Good or Bad
Chapter 6. Feedback, Reinforcement, and Intrinsic Motivation
Principles of Reinforcement
Approaches to Influencing Behavior
Guidelines for Using Positive Reinforcement
Guidelines for Using Punishment
Behavior Modification in Sport
Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
How Extrinsic Rewards Affect Intrinsic Motivation in Sport
Strategies for Increasing Intrinsic Motivation
Flow—A Special Case of Intrinsic Motivation
Part IV. Focusing on Group Processes
Chapter 7. Group and Team Dynamics
Recognizing the Difference Between Groups and Teams
Identifying Three Theories of Group Development
Understanding Group Structure
Creating an Effective Team Climate
Maximizing Individual Performance in Team Sports
Chapter 8. Group Cohesion
Definition of Cohesion
Conceptual Model of Cohesion
Tools for Measuring Cohesion
Relationship Between Cohesion and Performance
Other Factors Associated With Cohesion
Strategies for Enhancing Cohesion
Guidelines for Building Team Cohesion\
Chapter 9. Leadership
Definition of Leadership
Approaches to Studying Leadership
Sport-Oriented Interactional Approaches to Leadership
Research on the Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership
Leadership Training Interventions
Four Components of Effective Leadership
The Art of Leadership
Chapter 10. Communication
Understanding the Communication Process
Sending Messages Effectively
Receiving Messages Effectively
Recognizing Breakdowns in Communication
Dealing With Confrontation
Delivering Constructive Criticism
Part V. Improving Performance
Chapter 11. Introduction to Psychological Skills Training
What Psychological Skills Training Entails
Why PST Is Important
Why Sport and Exercise Participants Neglect PST
Myths About PST
PST Knowledge Base
Three Phases of PST Programs
Self-Regulation: The Ultimate Goal of PST
Who Should Conduct PST Programs
When to Implement a PST Program
PST Program Development
Common Problems in Implementing PST Programs
Chapter 12. Arousal Regulation
Increasing Self-Awareness of Arousal
Using Anxiety Reduction Techniques
Exploring the Matching Hypothesis
Coping With Adversity
Using Arousal-Inducing Techniques
Chapter 13. Imagery
Evidence of Imagery’s Effectiveness
Imagery in Sport: Where, When, Why, and What
Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Imagery
How Imagery Works
Uses of Imagery
Keys to Effective Imagery
How to Develop an Imagery Training Program
When to Use Imagery
Chapter 14. Self-Confidence
Understanding How Expectations Influence Performance
Examining Self-Efficacy Theory
Chapter 15. Goal Setting
Definition of Goals
Effectiveness of Goal Setting
Principles of Goal Setting
Development of Group Goals
Design of a Goal-Setting System
Common Problems in Goal Setting
Chapter 16. Concentration
Explaining Attentional Focus: Three Processes
Connecting Concentration to Optimal Performance
Identifying Types of Attentional Focus
Recognizing Attentional Problems
Using Self-Talk to Enhance Concentration
Assessing Attentional Skills
Future Developments in Concentration Training
Part VI. Enhancing Health and Well-Being
Chapter 17. Exercise and Psychological Well-Being
Reducing Anxiety and Depression With Exercise
Understanding the Effect of Exercise on Psychological Well-Being
Changing Personality and Cognitive Functioning With Exercise
Enhancing Quality of Life With Exercise
Examining the Runner’s High
Using Exercise as an Adjunct to Therapy
Chapter 18. Exercise Behavior and Adherence
Reasons to Exercise
Reasons for Not Exercising
Problem of Exercise Adherence
Theories and Models of Exercise Behavior
Determinants of Exercise Adherence
Settings for Exercise Interventions
Strategies for Enhancing Adherence to Exercise
Guidelines for Improving Exercise Adherence
Chapter 19. Athletic Injuries and Psychology
What Is Injury?
Causes of Injuries
Relationship Between Stress and Injury
Other Psychologically Based Explanations for Injury
Psychological Reactions to Exercise and Athletic Injuries
Role of Sport Psychology in Injury Rehabilitation
Identify Athletes and Exercisers Who Are at Risk for Injury
Chapter 20. Addictive and Unhealthy Behaviors
Addiction to Exercise
Compulsive Gambling: An Odds-On Favorite for Trouble
Chapter 21. Burnout and Overtraining
Definitions of Overtraining, Staleness, and Burnout
Frequency of Overtraining, Staleness, and Burnout
Models of Burnout
Factors Leading to Athlete Overtraining and Burnout
Symptoms of Overtraining and Burnout
Ways to Measure Burnout
Burnout in Sport Professionals
Treatment and Prevention of Burnout
Part VII. Facilitating Psychological Growth and Development
Chapter 22. Children and Sport Psychology
Importance of Studying the Psychology of Young Athletes
Children’s Reasons for Participation and Nonparticipation
Role of Friends in Youth Sport
Stress and Burnout in Children’s Competitive Sport
Effective Coaching Practices for Young Athletes
Role of Parents
The Professionalization of Children’s Sports
Chapter 23. Aggression in Sport
Understanding the Causes of Aggression
Examining Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations
Applying Knowledge to Professional Practice
Chapter 24. Character Development and Good Sporting Behavior
Defining Character, Fair Play, and Good Sporting Behavior
Developing Character and Good Sporting Behavior: Three Approaches
Examining Moral Development Research
Understanding the Connection Between Moral Reasoning and Moral Behavior
Studying the Connection Between Character Development and Physical Activity
Guiding Practice in Character Development
Continuing Your Journey
Textbook for undergraduate sport and exercise psychology courses; reference for libraries and sport psychologists.
Robert S. Weinberg, PhD, is a professor in kinesiology and health at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Weinberg has more than 30 years of experience in both the scholarly and applied aspects of sport psychology. He has written numerous research articles, including more than 150 refereed articles in scholarly journals, as well as books, book chapters, and applied articles for coaches, athletes, and exercisers.
Weinberg was voted one of the top 10 sport psychologists in North America by his peers. He is past president of the North American Society for Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) and of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP). He is also a certified AASP consultant, where he consults with athletes of all sports and ages.
Weinberg was named a Distinguished Scholar in Sport Psychology at Miami University in 2005. In addition, he was the editor of the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology and voted outstanding faculty member in the School of Education and Allied Professions at Miami University in 1998. In his leisure time, he enjoys playing tennis, traveling, and gardening.
Daniel Gould, PhD, is the director for the Institute for the Study of Youth Sports and professor in the department of kinesiology at Michigan State University. He has taught sport psychology for more than 35 years. An active researcher, Gould was the founding coeditor of The Sport Psychologist and has published more than 200 articles on sport psychology. He is best known for conducting applied research that links research and practice.
Gould was voted one of the top 10 sport psychology specialists in North America and is internationally known, having presented his work in more than 30 countries. When on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, he received the university’s coveted Alumni-Teaching Excellence Award, an all-campus teaching honor. He is an Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) certified consultant and member of the United States Olympic Committee Sport Psychology Registry.
Gould is the former president of AASP and SHAPE America’s Sport Psychology Academy. In addition to teaching sport psychology, he is extensively involved in coaching education from youth sports to Olympic competition. He also serves as mental skills training consultant for professional, Olympic, and world-class athletes, and in recent years he has served as an executive coach for business leaders interested in enhancing their organizations’ performance.
He lives in Okemos, Michigan, with his wife, Deb. He is a proud father of two sons, Kevin and Brian. In his leisure time, he enjoys swimming, doing fitness activities, and spending time with his family.
Instructor guide. Includes a sample course outline for organizing lectures and chapters; additional class exercises; and key concepts and objectives, individual class outlines (indicating recommended PowerPoint slides), and a list of web study guide activities for each chapter.
Test package. Contains more than 780 multiple-choice questions that have been updated to reflect new content added to the text and is available for use through multiple formats, including a learning management system, Respondus, and rich text.
Chapter quizzes. Includes unique questions, compatible with learning management systems, that may be used for testing students’ understanding on a chapter-by-chapter basis, offering easy grading and record keeping for instructors.
Presentation package plus image bank. Includes more than 1,000 slides covering the key points from the text, plus figures and tables from the book separated by chapter. Also includes links to all 122 videos. The slides in the presentation package can be used directly in PowerPoint or can be printed to make transparencies or handouts for distribution to students. Instructors can easily add, modify, and rearrange the order of the slides as well as search for images based on key words.
The presentation package plus image bank is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4504-8560-9
Instructor videos. Contains unique video content, not included in the web study guide, that instructors may use to supplement their lectures. More than 70 video clips feature expert commentary and expose students to the insights of veteran professionals in the field.
Web study guide. Contains learning activities to expand and test students’ understanding of principles and concepts of sport and exercise psychology. More than 40 video clips give students an opportunity to hear top sport psychologists discuss their perspectives on key course concepts and provide a realistic look at how sport psychologists interact and communicate with athletes and coaches.
The web study guide is also available for purchase • ISBN 978-1-4504-8562-3