Effect of exercise on the risk of several cancer types
Considerable scientific evidence suggests that physical activity reduces the risk of several cancer types with the evidence classified as convincing or probable for colon, breast, and endometrial cancers; possible for prostate, ovarian, and lung cancers; and null or insufficient for other cancers.
An unhealthy diet could account for up to 30% of all cancers in developing countries and perhaps 35% of cancer deaths in the United States. Hence, along with tobacco use, diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cancer.
Muscular strength and endurance in cancer survivors
Resistance exercise training has been effective in improving muscular strength and endurance in cancer survivors, with the majority of research being in those with breast cancer, prostate cancer, and head and neck cancer.
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ACSM’s Guide to Exercise and Cancer Survivorship presents the science behind the benefits of exercise for cancer survival and survivorship as well as the application of that science to the design or adaptation of exercise programs for cancer patients and survivors. Developed by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), this authoritative reference offers the most current information for health and fitness professionals working with survivors of many types of cancers.
Dr. Melinda L. Irwin has assembled a team of the most respected experts in the field of exercise and cancer survivorship. With an emphasis on practical application, the text discusses the following:
Incidence and prevalence of the most common cancers
Common cancer treatments and side effects
Benefits of exercise after a diagnosis of cancer
Exercise testing, prescription, and programming
Nutrition and weight management
Counseling for health behavior change
This guide presents evidence-based information to assist health, fitness, and medical professionals in using exercise to help cancer survivors with recovery, rehabilitation, and reducing the risk of recurrence. Throughout the text, readers will find quick-reference Take-Home Messages that highlight key information and how it can be applied in practice. Chapters also include reproducible forms and questionnaires to facilitate the implementation of an exercise program with a new client or patient, such as physician’s permission forms, medical and cancer treatment history forms, weekly logs of exercise and energy levels, medication listings, and nutrition and goal-setting questionnaires.
In addition, ACSM’s Guide to Exercise and Cancer Survivorship discusses all of the job task analysis points tested in the ACSM/ACS Certified Cancer Exercise Trainer (CET) exam, making this the most complete resource available for health and fitness professionals studying to attain CET certification. Each chapter begins with a list of the CET exam points discussed in that chapter. A complete listing is also included in the appendix. As both an essential preparation text for certification and a practical reference, ACSM’s Guide to Exercise and Cancer Survivorship will increase health and fitness professionals’ knowledge of the benefits of exercise after a cancer diagnosis as well as the specifics of developing and adapting exercise programs to meet the unique needs of cancer survivors.
Evidence has shown that physical activity has numerous health benefits for cancer patients and survivors. More clinicians and oncologists are recommending exercise as a strategy for reducing the side effects of treatment, speeding recovery, and improving overall quality of life. In turn, cancer survivors are seeking health and fitness professionals with knowledge and experience to help them learn how to exercise safely within their capabilities. With ACSM’s Guide to Exercise and Cancer Survivorship, health and fitness professionals can provide safe exercise programs to help cancer survivors improve their health, take proactive steps toward preventing recurrences, and enhance their quality of life.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer Larissa A. Korde, MD, MPH
Cancer Incidence and Survival
Cancer Screening and Diagnosis
Cancer Recurrence Warning Signs
Chapter 2. Side Effects and Persistent Effects of Cancer Surgery and Treatment Tara Sanft, MD, and Melinda L. Irwin, PhD, MPH
Side Effects of Cancer Surgery and Treatment
Recurrence, New Primaries, and Second Cancers
Chapter 3. Lifestyle Factors Associated With Cancer Incidence, Recurrence, and Survival Heather K. Neilson, MSc, and Christine M. Friedenreich, PhD
Effect of Body Weight
Effect of Exercise
Effect of Diet
Chapter 4. Benefits of Physical Activity After a Cancer Diagnosis Kristin L. Campbell, BSc PT, PhD
Physiological Effects of Exercise Training
Psychological Benefits of Exercise Training
Cancer-Specific Exercise Issues by Body System
Effects of Cancer Medications or Treatments on Designing an Exercise Program
Chapter 5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Testing in Clients Diagnosed With Cancer Lee W. Jones, PhD, and Claudio Battaglini, PhD
Administration of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Testing
Exercise Testing Safety
Chapter 6. Exercise Prescription and Programming Adaptations: Based on Surgery, Treatment, and Side Effects Kathryn Schmitz, PhD, MPH
Health Promotion and Risk of Disease Reduction
Exercise Prescription Alterations to Address Individual Needs
Benefits and Risks of Exercise and Exercise Training
Exercise Prescription Individualization
Acute and Chronic Adverse Effects of Treatment
Sample Exercise Prescriptions
Chapter 7. Nutrition and Weight Management Stephanie Martch, MS, RD, LD, and Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, PhD, RD
Diet in Cancer Prevention, Control, and Overall Health
Weight Status and Body Composition
Weight and Height Assessment
Energy Consumption and Cancer
Diet Composition and Nutrition Status
Complementary Alternative Medicine and Functional Foods
Chapter 8. Health Behavior Change Counseling Karen Basen-Engquist, PhD, MPH; Heidi Perkins, PhD; and Daniel C. Hughes, PhD
Effect of Cancer on Readiness to Exercise
Theory-Based Methods and Exercise
Translating Theory Into Practice
Chapter 9. Safety, Injury Prevention, and Emergency Procedures Anna L. Schwartz, PhD, FNP, FAAN
Cancer-Specific Safety Considerations
Chapter 10. Program Administration Carole M. Schneider, PhD
Designing a Cancer Rehabilitation Program
Cancer Rehabilitation Programs and Settings
Program Description and Operations
Policies and Procedures
Legal Issues and Documentation
About the Editor
A reference for health and fitness professionals and medical personnel
such as personal trainers, fitness specialists, and physical therapists
working with cancer patients and cancer survivors; also a preparation
text for the ACSM/ACS Certified Cancer Exercise Trainer (CET) exam.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), founded in 1954,
is the world’s largest sports medicine and exercise science organization
with more than 45,000 national, regional, and international members and
certified professionals in more than 90 countries. With professionals
representing more than 70 occupations, ACSM offers a 360-degree view of
sports medicine and exercise science. From academicians to students and
from personal trainers to physicians, the association of sports
medicine, exercise science, and health and fitness professionals is
dedicated to helping people worldwide live longer, healthier lives
through science, education, medicine, and policy.
About the Editor
Melinda L. Irwin, PhD, MPH, is an associate professor in the Yale
School of Public Health and codirector of the cancer prevention and
control research program at Yale Cancer Center. Dr. Irwin's research
focuses on how exercise and weight influence cancer risk and
survivorship. Dr. Irwin is the principal investigator of a number of
research studies at Yale University and collaborates on various national
projects and initiatives focused on exercise and cancer survivorship.
She has received funding from the National Cancer Institute, American
Cancer Society, Komen for the Cure, Lance Armstrong Foundation, and
American Institute for Cancer Research and has published her research
findings in top medical journals. Dr. Irwin also serves on various
national advisory committees to develop consensus statements on physical
activity, diet, weight control, and cancer prevention and control.
"Concise chapters cover descriptions of cancer to understanding
how it doesn't need to be a limiting factor in exercise participation.
The book does an excellent job of providing real-life examples and
demonstrating how the recommendations can be implemented in everyday