In operant conditioning, a relationship between an action by an animal and an external stimulus (commonly, a food reward) is learned. Classical conditioning involves a special group of phenomena termed conditioned reflexes. These reflexes are termed conditioned in contrast to the inborn, unconditioned reflexes.
Tasks that require prolonged muscle force are carried out by slow, fatigue-resistant motor units, while tasks that require a quick but short increase in muscle force are mostly performed by fast motor units. Most muscles, however, have a relatively wide range of the various motor units, reflecting their participation in a variety of motor tasks. As mentioned, the central nervous system can increase muscle force by recruiting more motor units or by increasing the firing frequency of already ...
Typical examples involve pain accompanying damage of a peripheral nerve or phantom pain occurring after amputation of a limb. Use the idea that pain equals signals in nociceptors minus signals in proprioceptors to suggest a method of treating chronic pain. This mixture of information across several segments may underlie, in particular, the phenomenon of pain irradiation, which occurs when pain spreads beyond the apparent limits of the nociceptive stimulus.
Reread any line in which you marked an error as well as two or three lines before and after the marked error, looking for other errors. Punctuation errors and inconsistencies: Mark glaring errors and query moderate ones. Errors in front matter listings--table of contents doesn’t match chapter, section headings, or page numbers; list of illustrations doesn’t match illustration or page numbers: Mark all errors.
The Lanham Act also protects collective marks and service marks. Whereas a trademark identifies the source of a product, a service mark identifies the source and quality of an intangible service. For example, the mark NCAA, as it stands for events and services related to the National Collegiate Athletic Association, is a service mark.