Suppose you want to know how an expert tennis player uses visual information to respond to an opponent’s serve. If visual information preceding ball contact is used to anticipate the serve, you would expect the experts to have more accurate predictions, which is actually the case. As it turns out, experts are better than novices at extracting information from visual cues related to the opponent’s posture during the portions of the serve preceding ball contact (Williams et al.
Some of these theories have been attempts to explain learning in general while others have focused mainly on the learning of motor skills. As you prepare to throw the dart, you will generate a motor program that specifies things such as the direction of the throw, the angle of release, and the force of the throw. Once you throw the dart, you will receive sensory information about how the throw felt and where the dart landed.
In fact, giving feedback too often can make a learner dependent upon the information provided to such an extent that performance actually suffers when the feedback is removed. 2. Feedback should provide information about how to fix the problem when learners do not know how to correct their own errors. 3. Delay feedback long enough for the learner to process her own inherent feedback.
When we are compelled to act quickly, we can sometimes emphasize speed over accuracy and actually end up missing the goal of the task entirely. You have probably experienced speed–accuracy trade-offs many times as you have completed various tasks (Fitts, 1954). Both of these examples demonstrate the fact that many tasks require us to trade between speed and accuracy in our movements.
The decision to use any given practice schedule should be based on the skill level of the learner, the demands of the task, and the eventual performance setting. As the learner gains proficiency, the instructor should begin to use random practice schedules if the task and performance setting will eventually require the performer to recall multiple tasks from memory. Distributed practice schedules should be the first choice, but skilled performers might complete some practice under massed ...