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Style Session Electronic Media


Procedures for Citing Electronic Media
in HK’s Publications


Web Addresses

Look on pages 40 through 42 of HK’s freelance style guide for specific examples of citing electronic references. This handout is a supplement to the material in the style guide.

For standard Web addresses, list the site using the www prefix and set it in boldface type: If the site ends a sentence, do not set the ending period in boldface. NEW as of October 2002: We no longer set Web sites and e-mail addresses in boldface type. Just style them in roman type. For example,

It’s important to include the www prefix when it’s part of the name; however, many newer sites don’t include the www. For example, is a Web address. For these kinds of addresses, include the http://.

There are those fringe users out there who use old machines and old software (yes, 486 SXs running at 24 MHz using Windows 3.11 still exist). Although most probably have software that puts in the http:// for them, some may not. Those who don’t probably will know to add it.

So, Here’s the Short Answer

Include everything after the http:// unless there is no www prefix. Here are some examples of different uses.

A standard: (For the HK Web address, capitalize the H and the K.)
NEW added 3/04:
For any product from HK, use headline-style capitalization: But for any product not from HK, use lowercase:

A subdirectory:
A final page:
A non-www site:
Other examples:

End-of-Line Breaks

The following is from Bill Walsh’s Web site,, on procedures for end-of-line breaks of Web addresses in text.

E-mail and Web addresses cannot be broken up with end-of-line hyphens. The addresses and are as different as 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. NW and 10 Downing St;.computers, unlike letter carriers, don’t deal in the concept of "almost." Rewrite paragraphs if you have to, but avoid confusing readers by introducing punctuation marks that could be misinterpreted as being part of a cyber-address.

This might be too idealistic when dealing with narrow columns, but thus far in my career I’ve been able to avoid the increasingly popular practice of splitting Web addresses after a dot, sans hyphen. A slash is a perfectly fine line-ender in a Web address. It’s a punctuation mark that doesn’t take spaces on either side, but it separates words rather than splitting them, so it needs no hyphen. So you could break after http:// or after or after See how easy it can be to avoid this splitting-on-the-dot nonsense?

Proper Citation of Software Products

Shorthand Guide to Using the Windows Trademark of Microsoft Corporation

1. Our marks are important

Microsoft Corporation’s trademarks and service marks are valuable corporate assets. This guide will assist you in the proper use of the Microsoft® Windows® trademark.

2. Product names

Without a specific trademark license from Microsoft, Microsoft’s marks may never be incorporated as part of the name of a product or service of another company. You may not include the word Windows, or any potentially confusing variation, in the name of your product. This same rule applies to other Microsoft marks, such as Microsoft®, which should never be included in your product name or company name.

3. Packaging and advertising

The compatibility of an application (or program) with the Windows operating system may be noted on packaging, collateral material, or advertising (but not included in the product name) by using phrases such as "for use with," "compatible with," or "for" the Windows operating system. On all such materials your product name must appear more prominently than the Windows mark, and the Windows mark should be visually distinguished from your product name by putting it in a different font, or color, or on a different line. This is important to avoid any implication that your product is produced, endorsed, or supported by Microsoft.

Here are some examples:

Do say XYZ for the Windows® operating system
Do not say XYZ Windows
Windows XYZ

Correctly referencing the Windows mark means doing all of the following:

  • Using the symbol "®" with our marks Windows and Microsoft. The symbol should be placed next to the last letter of the mark, at the upper right or at the base line. In advertising copy, the symbol should be used at the first or most prominent mention.
  • Placing the generic product name, "the descriptor," immediately after the mark. The descriptor for the Windows operating system is "operating system."
  • Including the following notice(s) on such material: "Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation."

    and (if Microsoft is used) "Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation."


4. Always use our trademarks as proper adjectives

Trademarks identify a company’s goods or services. A trademark is a proper adjective that modifies the generic name of a product or service. Microsoft is our house mark to identify all products and services that originate from us. Our Windows mark identifies our operating system.


Proper Adjective Generic Name or Description
Microsoft® software
Windows® operating system

5. Do not combine the trademarks with an improper generic name

Windows is the mark we use to identify our operating system. Applications (programs) designed to run on the Windows operating system are not "Windows applications," but rather, "applications for the Windows operating system."


Do say Application(s) for the Windows® operating system
Windows®-based application(s)
Do not say Windows® application(s)
Do say user of the Windows® operating system
Do not say Windows® user

6. Do not use our trademarks in the possessive or plural form


Do say Scalable fonts in Windows®
Do not say Windows’ scalable fonts
Do say The company ordered two copies of Windows®.
Do not say The company ordered two Windows.

7. Do not abbreviate or create acronyms

Our marks should not be abbreviated.


Do not say Win

8. Company names

Microsoft marks may never be incorporated in your company name, whether a corporate name or d/b/a.


Do not say Windows, Inc.
  XYZ Windows Company

9. Internet (or Web) site names

Follow the guidelines outlined previously when using the names Windows and Microsoft on your Internet site. Internet sites may use a term such as "about Windows®" in the title of their sites; however, the site’s title should not begin with either Windows or Microsoft. Do not use either Windows or Microsoft in your Internet domain name.

10. The flag logo

The flag logo of Microsoft is a valuable symbol for our Windows operating system and related products. The flag logo may never be used without a license from Microsoft.

Some Examples From HK Materials

The following is an example of text from one of our graphics packages:

_________ can be installed on either a Windows®-based PC or a Macintosh computer.
If so, please divide the Minimum System Requirements into a Microsoft Windows® and a Macintosh® bulleted list.

(1) System compatibility:

  • IBM PC compatible with Pentium® processor
  • Windows® 9.x/NT 4.0
  • Windows® 2000
  • Pentium® processor or higher
  • 486 ________________
  • Power Mac® recommended
  • System 7.x or 8.x
  • System 7.x/8.x/9.x
  • System __________
  • ________________

(2) Software Requirements:

  • Adobe Acrobat Reader®
  • Microsoft PowerPoint®
  • Microsoft Office®
  • ________________

Other Media


In text, italicize video titles: Teaching Youth Basketball Basics.


In text, set CD-ROM titles in italics. Here’s an example of text from an instruction manual:
Insert the Sport Director Professional Edition CD-ROM into the drive.

The title is in italics, but "CD-ROM" is not set in italics. We have exceptions, however. For titles like Krause, it was Interactive Basketball Skills and Drills CD-ROM, all in italics because CD-ROM was part of the official title (to set it distinctly apart from the book).

For instructor guides and test banks, the official title is Ancillary Software. So the title would be, for example, Gould and Weinberg Ancillary Software. For the graphics package, it would be Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology Graphics Package. And, if you’re telling someone where to put the CD-ROM, write "Insert the Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology Graphics Package CD-ROM into. . .."

Electronic Media in Reference Lists

Here’s CMS’ pat answer to styling videorecordings:
The many varieties of visual (and audiovisual) materials now available render futile any attempt at universal rule making. The nature of the material, its use to the researcher using it, and the facts necessary to find (retrieve) it should govern the substance of any note or bibliography (CMS 15.418).

Videos, CD-ROMs, cassettes, and music CDs won’t necessarily take the same format as books and articles listed in references. What you should try to do is list similar elements in the same order as they are listed for books and articles. Here are some examples:

1. Title-date format

Winning Respect. 1998. Produced by the American Sport Education Program. 15 min. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Videocassette.

2. Author-title format

Perlman, Itzak. Itzak Perlman: In My Case Music. Produced and directed by Tony DeNonno. 10 min. DeNonno Pix, 1985. Videocassette.


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