Shopping Basket 0
Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.


About Us

Lists and Enumeration

Contents Back Next

Lists (Bulleted, Numbered) and Enumeration

Refer to CMS 5.9-5.10, 8.75-8.78, and these examples:

1. If the text preceding the list is grammatically completed by the list items, then end the text with no punctuation. Do not capitalize the list items, end each item with a comma or semicolon (as the complexity of punctuation within the series items demands), put an "and" after the second-to-last item, and end the last item with a period. In other words, if the list serves as a series completing the preceding text, use appropriate series capitalization and punctuation.

An abstract of a report of an empirical study should describe in 100 to 150 words

  • the problem under investigation, in one sentence if possible;
  • the subjects, specifying pertinent characteristics-number, type, age, sex, and species;
  • the experimental method, including the apparatus, data-gathering procedures, and complete test names or generic names, and the dosage of any drugs, particularly if the drugs are novel or important to the study;
  • the findings, including statistical significance levels; and
  • the conclusions and the implications or applications.

2. If the text preceding the list is a complete sentence, end it with a period or a colon. If the list items are independent clauses, then capitalize each and end each with a period. If the list items are phrases, capitalize each and include no punctuation after them. (If there is a mix of sentences and phrases, close all with periods.) If the sentence preceding the list specifies a certain number of items, use numbers instead of bullets.

To draw a graph, follow these steps:

  • Make heavy lines for the vertical and horizontal axes. The length of the vertical axis (which the dependent variable is plotted on) should be about two-thirds the length of the horizontal axis (which the independent variable is plotted on).
  • Choose the appropriate grid scale. Consider the range and scale separation to be used on both axes and the overall dimensions of the figure so that plotted curves span the entire illustration.
  • Indicate units of measurement by placing grid marks on each axis at the appropriate intervals.
  • Clearly label each axis with both the quantity measured and the units in which the quantity is measured.

The inadequacy of the methods proposed for the solution of both histological and mounting problems is emphasized by the number and variety of the published procedures, which fall into six groups:

1. Slightly modified classical histological techniques with fluid fixation, wax embedding, and aqueous mounting of the section or the emulsion

2. Sandwich technique with separate processing of tissue and photographic film after exposure

3. Protective coating of tissue to prevent leaching during application of stripping film or liquid emulsion

4. Freeze substitution of tissue with or without embedding followed by film application

5. Vacuum freeze-drying of tissue blocks followed by embedding

6. Mounting of frozen sections on emulsion, using heat or adhesive

For listing or enumerating items running into the text sentence, see CMS 8.75. Either a numeral or letter may be used, enclosed within parentheses. Use numbers when the sequence or order is important. Avoid overusing the enumeration style within sentences. Include the format only when the sentence is complex enough that having letters or numbers improves clarity.

Manuscripts undergo several early steps in editorial development, including (a) general review by an acquisitions editor, (b) a read through and thorough review by a developmental
editor, (c) subsequent revision by the author, (d) a check by the developmental editor, (e) manuscript preparation and typemarking by an assistant editor, and (f) a meticulous line edit by a professional freelance copyeditor.

Manuscripts undergo several early steps in editorial development, including (1) general review by an acquisitions editor, (2) a read through and thorough review by a developmental editor, (3) subsequent revision by the author, (4) a check by the developmental editor, (5)
manuscript preparation and typemarking by an assistant editor assistant, and (6) a meticulous line edit by a professional freelance copyeditor.

Metric and English Measurements

Books that will have an international audience should include metric measurements. Review the copyediting transmittal form for directions from the DE. If you are asked to include both English and metric measurements, use the guidelines in appendix 7. You will want to use a calculator!

Multiple-Choice Tests

Use the following guidelines for copyediting multiple-choice test items.

  • Enumerate test answers with lowercase letters followed by periods (a., b., c., etc.). The items listed as answers should not conclude with periods unless the question is a complete sentence and each answer is a complete sentence (see sample questions below).
  • If a question runs into the answers grammatically, no colon should separate the two. Punctuate the question as otherwise appropriate (e.g., with a comma if needed after an introductory clause; with a period or question mark if the question forms a complete sentence; and with a colon if the answer is a complete sentence and the answers are illustrative lists).
  • Every answer should form a grammatically correct unit if the question runs in (exceptions: "all of the above"; "none of the above"; and answers denoting particular answer letters [e.g., "both a and c"]).
  • The first word of each answer should be lowercase unless the answer is an independent sentence, the first word of a question, or a proper noun.
  • If answers list items that fill more than one blank, separate them by semicolons.
  • Lowercase "true" and "false" as answers. (See sample 7 below.)

The following are examples of HK style for multiple-choice questions.

1a. Heat cramps are caused by

a. physical activity
b. water loss
c. poor conditioning
d. none of the above

1b. ___________ causes heat cramps.

a. Physical activity
b. Water loss
c. Poor conditioning
d. None of the above

2. Age is an important criterion for

a. entering and leaving positions
b. interacting with others
c. gaining access to some aspects of social participation
d. all of the above
e. a and b

3. The two basic forms of behavioral involvement in sport are

a. primary and tertiary
b. producer and consumer
c. primary and secondary
d. direct and indirect

4. Capitalists, even among sport owners, try to keep productivity ________ and wages _______.

a. high; low
b. low; high
c. growing; decreasing
d. none of the above

5. There appear to be three major types of sport subcultures:

a. deviant, social, and occupational
b. avocational, occupational, and deviant
c. avocational, social, and deviant
d. none of the above

6. Regarding eye injury care, which statement is incorrect?

a. Do not wash a cut or punctured eyeball.
b. Simple bruises can be treated by applying ice without compression.
c. Care cannot be administered with contact lenses in place.
d. An eye should be washed out by applying water to its outside corner.
e. All injuries involving the corneas should be treated by an eye specialist.

7. Physical activity causes heat cramps.

a. true
b. false


Follow the principles listed in chapter 8 of CMS regarding the use of a numeral or a word, but in humanities/trade style you will spell out "one through nine" rather than "one through ninety-nine." Thus, you might write about three days, six inches, or eight degrees in temperature (but "3 percent"; see 8.18). In scientific style, however, distances, lengths, areas, and other measures take numerals (see CMS 8.11). Review chapter 13 for manuscripts that have display equations and mathematics or other scientific symbols.

Few manuscripts that HK publishes emphasize historical periods, so you are unlikely to find many references to earlier centuries. With the new millennium, it is probable, however, that you will find references to the 20th and 21st centuries. If a manuscript is about such subjects as character development or philosophy of sport (i.e., humanities style), it is fine to stet an author’s consistent spelling out of twentieth century or twenty-first century, but in general we will use the numerals to fit with the zero to nine limit on words.

Write out common fractions in humanities or nonscientific style: one half, two-thirds (always use the hyphen for adjectival fractions; use it optionally but consistently with nouns). Add commas in numbers of four or more digits. When a whole number and fraction are combined, they should be closed up as case or split fractions: 8¼. If the keyboard doesn’t allow this, leave a space for clarity: 8 1/4. Note: It is difficult and time consuming for GAs to create case fractions. Unless there is a special circumstance on a project that warrants spending the time to make all fractions case fractions, you should create the fractions as shown here (1/4; 8 1/4) rather than as case fractions. You should turn off the autoformat feature in Word that converts fractions to case fractions. To do this, go into the Tools menu and choose AutoCorrect. Choose the tab that says AutoFormat As You Type and make sure the box for replacing fractions with fraction characters is NOT checked.

On hard copy, mark spaces between mathematical signs, such as the multiplication X or the division sign. Circle the notation--mult. or times--for the multiplication X. The GA must change fonts to create it. See appendix 3 for more information on character coding for online editing.

In ranges of numbers, you may use the hyphen rather than an en dash if you do so consistently. You will encounter these pairs of inclusive numbers mostly with years and page numbers in references: This contradicts CMS on inclusive numbers (8.68).

  • 1995-1998
  • [pages] 68-72


Permissions and Credit Lines

Copyeditors need not edit credit lines; these will be edited in-house by an AE. Permissions are also handled in house, but if you notice extracts (more than 250 words), figures, or tables that should have permission and lack credit lines, please query them. For proofreading purposes, here is the format we follow:

Abbreviated Credit Lines

Abbreviated credit lines are typemarked as under a figure caption or at the bottom of a table.

Reprinted [or Adapted] from Smith, Williams, and Wilson 1985.

We will not list the previous work’s table or figure number unless the author happens to supply it. In that case, see CMS 11.43 for correct style of the table or figure number.

Full Credit Lines

Full credit lines are usually placed under a figure caption or at the bottom of a table but are sometimes placed on a Credits Page.

Journal article:
Reprinted [or Adapted], by permission, from A.N. Author and C.O. Author, 19XX, Title of article, Title of Journal 50 (1): 22.

Reprinted [or Adapted], by permission, from A.N. Author, C.O. Author, and P.D. Author, 19XX, Title of book, 3rd ed. (Place of Publication: Publisher), 22.

Chapter in edited book:
Reprinted [or Adapted], by permission, from A.N. Contributor, 19XX, Title of chapter. In Title of book, edited by A.C. Author (Place of Publication: Publisher), 22.

Differences From Chicago

  • Chicago advocates different formats of source notes for figures, tables, and text. Except for photos, we will use one format only, with flexibility.
  • Contrary to 12.47, we will not use the word "Source" to begin credit lines. If we do, for some reason, include the word "Source," we will style it as in 12.47 (in italics, followed by colon).
  • We will not include "of the publisher" or "of the author" after "by permission" unless for some reason we think this is necessary.
  • We will not include a space between initials: B.D. Johnson
  • We will place issue numbers in parentheses; we will only use the phrasing "no. x" instead of "(x)" for issue numbers if an author sends in a manuscript where all issue numbers are styled this way.
  • We will always place a space between the volume and issue number, and between the colon and the page number:

50 (1): 22.
50 (summer): 22.
50, no. 1: 22.
50: 22.

Phone Numbers

Use hyphens between the area code and number; omit the initial 1: "I dashed over to jot down her phone numbers, 217-351-5076; 800-747-4457."

Previously Published Materials and Revised Editions

Some books include contributions (including figures, tables, and entire chapters) that have been previously published and that we have received permission to reprint. The DE or ME should indicate in detail on the copyediting transmittal form or on the individual elements how much editorial license is to be taken. Sometimes no changes are made; other times the copyeditor may make standard alterations to conform to HK style and to improve the editorial content. Subsequent workers must be careful not to "correct" seeming copyediting errors in this regard--double-check before assuming that a usage contrary to style is a mistake.

With revised editions of an HK book or a book that our company acquires from another publisher, the copyeditor should be clear on whether to retain the original spelling and styling. In some cases, a work that was copyedited in APA style will be updated in CMS style. Usually a fresh copyedit is wanted, although the style sheet from an earlier edition may be useful for specialized terms. If the copyediting transmittal form has not made clear the DE’s or ME’s intentions in style, please call for clarification!


Use the serial comma: "Being a healthful eater, I went to the store to buy zucchini, romaine lettuce, and scallions. Once there, however, I realized that spaghetti, pesto sauce, brownies, and Dove bars were cheaper--you know the rest."

With sentences that include a colon, the material before the colon should form an independent clause. An exception might be in headings for games and exercise books, where a DE, ME, or book designer has specified a colon (e.g., Game Equipment:, Scoring:). If you aren’t sure about how to format such heads, call the DE, ME, or ESM.

Scientific Style (Including Marking Math and Greek Symbols)

Follow chapter 13 in CMS. For online editing, alert the GA to unusual symbols or fonts by using the character codes provided in appendix 3. For hard-copy edits, write "Greek" or "math" or other appropriate descriptors, circling what you write. Leave a (regular) space between math operators.

Trademarked Names NEW updated 11/07

Trademarked names should be capitalized; when a generic equivalent is available, use it in place of a trade name (e.g., "photocopy" rather than "Xerox"; "in-line skates" rather than "Rollerblades"). You can get an excellent list of trademarks and guidelines for their use from the U.S. Trademark Association (USTA), 6 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017; 212-768-9886. We have this list in house if you have questions. Dictionaries are another excellent source of most trademarks. Any trademark (TM), registration (®), and copyright (©) symbols should be deleted. In other words, we do NOT need to use trademark symbols. We used to have a policy of using the trademark symbol when mentioning Microsoft products, but there is no law that says we must. We will not get sued if we don’t use the trademark symbol. Capitalization of a trademarked name will suffice. If you see any references to the trademarked acronym of SAQ, which indicates a system for speed, agility, and quickness training, avoid the trademarked term altogether. That is, don’t use SAQ. Use the term speed, agility, and quickness training.

To determine whether a questionable item is trademarked, check the following sources:


Figures are illustrations, including line drawings, Mac art, graphs, charts, and photos. Before the days of computer art, figures were more easily distinguished from tables because they did not involve typeset material. Figure labels were typeset in a group and added to the figures. With the use of computer art, the distinction is more blurred. At HK DEs, MEs, and AEs prepare art lists, having decided what art to include and whether it will be produced as a figure or table. These lists usually are included in the red production folder when a project is sent to you. Copies of the art manuscript in rough form also are usually sent so that content can be checked against text.

Figure Captions and Labels, Text Mentions and Callouts

Some publishers distinguish between figure captions and figure legends. HK follows the author’s practice in this, adding legends mainly for scientific books. In both figure captions and legends, the sentence style will be used (i.e., initial cap only). Do not follow CMS style: Instead, spell out figure and delete any period between the figure number and figure caption . Always use a period at the end of the figure caption.

Figure 3.3 Triceps stretch.

Figure 11.1 Multidimensional model of leadership for sports.
Adapted from Chelladurai 1980.

To refer to one part of a figure with multiple parts, close up the figure number to the part letter (see CMS 11.27). Lowercase and italicize the part letter: for example, Figure 11.2a. To refer to multiple parts, use a comma between the figure number and the letters: "see figure 11.2, a through d" in text or, in parentheses, "(see figure 11.2, a-d)."

Here is a consolidated Human Kinetics house style sheet for editing art:

House Style for Figure Labels

  • Initial cap only (like a sentence without end punctuation).
  • Spell out numbers nine and lower; use numerals for 10 and more.
  • Use small caps with eras and hours of the day: 395 B.C., 2:30 P.M.
  • Trade, ASEP, and YMCA books:
    1. Spell out terms of measure: yards, feet, meters.
    2. In books with an international audience, use meter.
    3. If space is an issue, use English abbreviations (that is, use a period and the same form for singular plural). Examples are 1 yd., 10 yd., 3 mo., 6 ft., 15 sec.
    4. Avoid symbols: 23 percent, 45 degrees.
    5. Omit 0 before decimal in fractions of one: .95 percent.
  • Academic and sport science books
    1. Abbreviate terms of measure.
    2. Use international system abbreviations (that is, no period and the same form for singular and plural). Examples are 1 m, 10 m, 3 mo, 28 cm, 15 s.
    3. Avoid using centered or multiplication dot (that is, use 2m/s instead of m·o s-1).
    4. Use symbols: 23%, 45°.
    5. Add 0 before decimal point in fractions of one: 0.95%.
  • For multipart illustrations and letters as labels
    1. If a figure has two or more parts that are indicated by letter name next to the figure (and in the caption), use lowercase italic style for the letters. The caption should also use lowercase italics within parentheses. Examples are a, b, c. (a) xxxxx, (b) xxxxxxxxxxx, (c) xxx..
    2. If letters are used within a figure to label or indicate parts, put these in bold caps (uppercase).
    3. These are guidelines; if an author (through the DE, ME, or AE) indicates a strong preference for a different style for a particular book, the house guidelines may be ignored as long as the manuscript’s usage is consistent within itself.

Figure labels are usually grouped into one folder for editing and typesetting. Often an AE will have edited them already, and the copyeditor simply should check them for consistency and for correct illustration of the text. Use sentence style with figure labels (i.e., use initial cap only--and no period):

  • Required behavior
  • Actual behavior
  • Preferred behavior
  • Performance decline with injury

Each numbered figure (and table) should be preceded by a reference to it in text: a text mention or text reference. A copyeditor and proofreader both should verify that each figure has a text mention, and that the reference and its subsequent piece of art match (i.e., that the art accurately describes the text reference or description and vice versa). The text mention should usually refer to the art in one of these two ways:

See figure 3.3.

(see figure 3.3)

Again, note that figure is spelled out and lowercase. Use decimals in figure numbers (not figure 3-3 or 3,3). A callout is used to show GAs and other workers where the art is to be placed. At HK the callout should be flush left, as with the rest of the text. The copyeditor and proofreader both should verify that the callout is in place. On hard copy, it should be circled so that the words (e.g., \Insert figure 3.3 here\) are not typeset. With online copy, you should see \insert figure 3.3 here\ (note the backslashes: The GAs locates callouts by searching for them); if we missed typing the callout in-house, please query it. You do not need to copyedit any text within these backslashes.


Tables should summarize information clearly and concisely. Follow the guidelines in chapter 12 of CMS for styling and editing, especially sections 12.62-84. Please query the DE if you think material simply duplicates the text (or vice versa) or if you see other major problems. Tables may be edited on hard copy to avoid formatting problems, since they may be the most difficult element to typeset, size, and change. We encourage the use of abbreviations and numerals, such as 4 h or 3 in., whenever possible. If you have questions, address them to the DE, ME, AU, or ESM.

Table Titles and Styling

Only the table title should be in headline style, capitalizing all words except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions of three or fewer letters. We prefer sentence (down) style (initial cap only) for all other table elements, including the stub (the left-hand column), table column heads, table spanners, and entries within the table body. Yet an epidemiological study, for example, might produce a summary table with spanners of "Men and Women" and "Boys and Girls." It would be better to cap both men and women or boys and girls, being sure to follow this usage in all the manuscript’s tables.

Use decimals in table numbers (Table 2.3, not Table 2-3). The table number should not have a period after it. Align on the decimal in columns of numbers.

Text Mentions and Callouts

Text mentions should follow the style of figures, using lowercase: See table 2.3 or (see table 2.3). Check that a text mention precedes each table and that the mention and table match accurately (and also that the table’s content reflects the text’s). Please query if a table callout is missing. As with figure callouts, table callouts should be placed between backslashes: \Insert table 2.3 about here\.


Our preference is to style references in the author-date system explained in chapter 16 of CMS. If an author has submitted a manuscript in another style, however, and followed that style consistently, it is acceptable to preserve the usage unless the DE or ME asks you to change the style. Many of our publications are heavily referenced, and changing so many items would entail unnecessary work and invite inconsistency or error.

You may find that an author has followed APA or Council of Biology Editors (CBE; 6th ed.) for reference citations and the reference list. Less frequently we have let stand American Medical Association style and the National Strength and Conditioning Association style. Legal citations must follow the appropriate style provided in A Uniform System of Citation: Form of Citation and Abbreviation, 14th edition. Copyeditors are instructed on the copyediting transmittal form about which referencing style to use, and the style sheet should alert later workers not to alter it. We will allow authors to use initials in author names both in humanities and scientific style. In all styles, the initials should not have space between them: Roosevelt, F.D.R., H.S Truman, and M. Mouse.

If a reference style uses superscript numbers to cite references, the reference numbers will follow any punctuation. A sequence of more than two reference numbers should be collapsed to a range with a hyphen (e.g., references 12, 13, 14, 15 should be cited as 12-15), and word spaces should be included after commas (if the author has not provided these, you can instruct the GA with a global note to add them). Appendixes 5 and 6 describe how to style places of publication and publisher names (full names should be shortened to the reduced versions listed).

Internet and Electronic Mail References

CMS is sorely lacking in information about how to cite material from electronic sources. The information compiled here is taken from the APA Web site and altered to meet the general CMS format for the most common types of printed materials that we run into. (This method, rather strangely, is actually advocated by CMS!) See also the style session on citing electronic media.

Here are samples of how to cite material from the Internet, including http, ftp, gopher, and telnet sites. If the author supplies a different medium, simply make sure that the retrieval path is sufficiently identified.

Many URLs are hopelessly long and don’t fit across narrow columns. Here are some rules for breaking them over two lines.

  • Break a line before or after the discrete units that begin or occur throughout URLs. These units are usually divided by text slashes. Do not force a break within these protocols.
  • Don’t break a URL at a hyphen. This may introduce confusion about whether or not the hyphen is part of the URL.
  • Break URLs before a punctuation mark, carrying the punctuation symbol to the next line.
  • If a URL ends a sentence, always add the requisite period.

As with printed publications, when no date is available, CMS advocates using "n.d." Please note that you do not need to include the available protocol if it is given in the site path.

NEW material added 3/04: If you see a product-specific URL in a manuscript, and it’s for a product from Human Kinetics, use headline-style capitalization in the URL: If you see a URL promoting a product not from Human Kinetics, don’t capitalize anything:

Please note the change in the following examples: Delete the http:// at the beginning of the URL if a www follows. If anything but a www follows the http://, leave the http://.


Author/editor. Year. Title. edition. [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available protocol (if applicable): site/path/file [Access date].

Pritzker, T.J. 1989. An early fragment from central Nepal. [Online]. Available: [June 8, 1990].

Chapters in Edited Books

Author/editor. Year. Title. In Source. edition. [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (if applicable): site/path/file [Access date].

Daniel, R.T. 1998. The history of western music. In Britannica online: Macropaedia [Online]. Available: [October 15, 1998].

Journal Articles

Author. Year. Title. Journal Title. [Type of medium]. volume (issue):page numbers or indicator of length. Available Protocol (if applicable): site/path/file [Access date].

Carriveau, K.L. 1997. Environmental hazards: Marine pollution. Electronic Green Journal. [Online]. 2 (1):3 paragraphs. Available: gopher:// egj03/carriv01.html [January 4, 1998].

Get the latest news, special offers, and updates on authors and products. SIGN UP NOW!

Human Kinetics Rewards

About Our Products

Book Excerpts


News and Articles

About Us

Career Opportunities


Business to Business

Author Center

HK Today Newsletter


Exam/Desk Copies

Language rights translation

Association Management

Associate Program

Rights and Permissions




Certifying Organizations

Continuing Education Policies

Connect with Us

YouTube Tumblr Pinterest

Terms & Conditions


Privacy Policy


Safe Harbor