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Appendix 4. Guidelines for Typemarking

Contents Back Appendix 5: Place of Publication and Province Abbreviations

Appendix 4. Guidelines for Typemarking

Typemarking instructions are crucial for communicating to the GA and book designer which manuscript elements need to be formatted differently from normal text. For example, typemarks can communicate the level, or weight, of each heading and can differentiate bulleted lists from numbered lists.

On some projects, copyeditors will be asked to complete the typemarking tasks, marking elements that are standard and easy to identify (such as lists, tables, chapter numbers and titles, a-, b-, and c-heads, and so on) as you perform the rest of the copyediting tasks that you have been performing. The DE or ME will determine which of these marks will be used, and will pass this information on to you via the copyediting transmittal form. Special elements (normally ones the DE, ME, or AU has created to draw special attention to certain information) will be typemarked by the DE, ME, or AE, or explicit instructions will be given to you for doing it. If you happen to see the need to develop a new typemark, please alert the DE or ME right away.

What Gets Typemarked?

Check the manuscript for elements that must be given type specifications by the book designer. Look page by page for any element that differs from text: headings, lists, references, credit lines, figure captions, and so on. Elements given the same mark must serve the same function in the text. Likewise, two elements with different purposes must not be typemarked the same.

How to Mark Up the Manuscript

Whenever possible, use the standard marks that appear in the "Style Tags/Typemarking" section on pages 71 to 72. Name unusual elements logically and define them. Try to subsume as much of any repeatable pattern as possible under a single typemark.

Please include a list of the typemarks used in the manuscript and three page numbers-or at least the chapters in which they appear-on which each one is used, providing a long, medium-size, and short sample of each element. This will allow the book designer to find good examples of each typemark (and where applicable at varying lengths). Any language accents must also be marked and listed. Refer to appendix 3 to see the character codes used, if necessary, for each accent. As you have been doing, please insert codes if needed and provide a cover sheet with the style sheet listing the codes used.

Typemarking Online

Typemarking online should be a fairly quick and painless process. Under most circumstances, you will only be typemarking a limited number of items:

  • Headings
  • Lists-bulleted, numbered, lettered
  • Chapter and part titles and numbers
  • Author names and affiliations
  • Independent equations
  • Extracts
  • Credit lines
  • References

You may also be asked to typemark other elements based upon an example given by the DE or ME. Any figure, table, or special element that falls outside the above categories should be typemarked as explained below.

If the DE or ME asks you to set figure and table callouts, set them apart at the end of a paragraph by an extra hard return and enclosed in backslashes:

\insert table 4.1\

Please refer to appendix 3 to see which symbols and special characters can also convert and which require coding.

When importing the files sent by DEs or MEs to Production, the PageMaker software reads typemarks enclosed in < > marks and automatically assigns their attributes. The software does not require end typemarks (typemarks that signal an end to a specific style or format), but you MUST code the beginning of text. Because the software does not use end codes, it will continue to typeset something in the way it has been instructed until it runs into a code telling it to start setting in a different style. DO NOT leave spaces after the typemark; the typemark should directly proceed the first character of the text it is to affect. For example, to code an a-head followed by text, you would do the following:

Increasing Your Mileage
Don’t continuously increase your mileage. Every few weeks level it off before adding more to your program.

Typemarking Tables

  • On the hard copy version of each table, mark the title and number , table column heads , table body , table footnotes , table credit lines , and table spanner heads . Circle each typemark. Mark table titles and column heads for capitalization and punctuation as specified on pages 39. See pages 72 and 73 for examples.
  • If abbreviations are used in column heads, make sure they are used consistently across all tables.
  • Revise tables as necessary to be as similar in structure or as easily understandable as possible.

Typemarking Figures

  • If the figure caption appears with the figure, mark the number and caption . If captions are all listed together in a separate file, you do not need to typemark using .
  • Mark the credit line if it is to be set in a smaller point size, separate from the caption.

Typemarking Special Elements

Special elements are those that require special type specifications. Standard marks cannot be used because these elements are unlike other common elements, such as lists or tables. Examples include highlights, sidebars, forms, drills, and exercises. In most situations, the editor will have already typemarked the special elements or will at least have gone through each type of element to give you an example of how to proceed. If you are asked to do more extensive work on special elements, here are a few pointers.

  • Give each element a global name (such as , , , , etc.) and let the book designer determine how each part of the element will look. You may want to typemark individual parts of a special element, such as headings and lists. The DE or ME will clearly communicate to you what type of emphasis each part of the special element deserves as well as how much emphasis should be given the element as a whole.
  • You can mark elements that are similar to other common elements with the same typemarks. For example, special elements that are identical to tables should be marked using table typemarks; lists should be marked to be handled like bulleted, numbered, or (much less frequently) lettered lists.

Typemarking on Hard Copy

Copyediting on hard copy is a rare occurrence anymore, but there are still times when parts of a manuscript (and in very rare cases entire manuscripts) other than tables and art need to be copyedited and typemarked on hard copy.

  • When typemarking hard copy, use a bright pencil (a color that will photocopy). Write and circle the typemark in the left margin next to the element, as is shown with the tables on pages 72 and 73.
  • Look at the manuscript page by page.
  • Mark each heading by writing the typemark in the left margin and circling it.
  • Mark the beginning or continuation of paragraphs after lists and other displayed elements.
  • To mark each change to a special format, place the mark wherever the change in format begins, circle it, and draw a line down the left margin. If the element ends on that page, draw a short horizontal line where it stops; if it continues to the next page, draw an arrowhead at the bottom of the marginal line. For elements of more than one page, repeat the typemark and marginal line on each page of the element, drawing an ending line where the element stops. For elements with unclear beginning or ending points (such as lists), indicate those points with the words begin and end.

Miscellaneous Typemarking Issues

  • The typemark (non-indented text) should be used after all headings and after lists, figures, tables, and special elements if a new paragraph has not begun. If you are marking an indented paragraph, use .
  • In the past, we have asked that you use asterisks to mark bullets within a bulleted list. It is now okay to use the bullets within the Symbols function if your software allows you to do so. DO NOT use the bullets or numbers function, though. It does not allow the typemark to be set correctly next to it.
  • Do not use a hard return after typemarks, but no matter what level of heading, please use a hard return after it to make it easier for the graphic artist to see.
  • PageMaker only reads < (less than) and > (greater than) symbols as typemarks if they are at the beginning of a paragraph and used together without character spaces in the text between them.

Style Tags/Typemarks

The following is a list of the most frequently used style tags/typemarkings used in Production for book publication.

  part number * credit line
  part title   equation
  chapter number ** extract
  chapter title ** quote
a-head   source
  b-head   table number
  c-head table title
  d-head   table column head
  text (no indent)   table spanner
  text (with indent)   table body
  list head * table footnote
  list * table credit line
  bulleted list   references
  numbered list   address
  bulleted paragraph   sidebar a-head
  numbered paragraph   sidebar b-head
  bulleted list in numbered list   sidebar nonindented text
  bulleted list in bulleted list   sidebar indented text
  lettered list *** special element
  lettered paragraph
drill title
  lettered list in numbered list   drill head
  figure caption   drill text
* footnote    

*It is important to distinguish between regular footnotes and credit lines (found within the text and figures), and table footnotes and credit lines. Different sizes may apply.

**For HK’s purposes, an extract is considered to be a portion of material from a larger work that usually falls within the text of a chapter. A quote is normally found at the beginning of a chapter and it is used really as more of a point of interest or a key point.

***Many editors these days are finding it easier to make up names for special elements and just apply those names to the special elements consistently throughout the manuscript (for example, for a checklist; for a form; or for a case study). If you will have more than one type of special element in a book, assign different names to as many different types as you have and remember which names belong to which special elements! It doesn’t matter what you name them as long as the first two letters are "se" to signify that it is a special element. Please list the different types of special elements that you have used.

Sample Tables

Here are two sample typemarked tables.

Table 2.7 Representative Levels of Energy Expenditure (in METs)

1.5-2 METs 4-5 METs
Walking 1 mph Calisthenics
Standing Cycling outdoors 6 mph
2-3 METs 5-6 METs
Walking 2.5-3 mph Walking 4 mph
Light housework Digging in garden
3-4 METs 6-7 METs
Vacuuming Stationary cycling (vigorous)
Walking 3 mph Tennis (singles)

Note: One MET is the level of energy expenditure at rest, or approximately 3.5 ml/kg/min of
oxygen consumption.

Shoe Size Metric Converter

European size U.S. size

35 3.5
36 4
37 4.5
38 5.5
39 6
40 7
40.5 7.5
41 8
42 8.5
43 9
44 10.5
45 11
46 11.5

Typemarking Lists Within Lists

Typemark lists within lists as follows:

Numbered List Within Bulleted List
* First bullet
* Second bullet
1. A list within a list
2. Second number
3. Third number
* Third bullet
* Fourth bullet

Bulleted List Within Numbered List
1. First number
* I am a bulleted list item
* Me, too!
2. Not me

Typemarking Dos and Don’ts

RULE: One Style Per Paragraph at Beginning of Paragraph

A paragraph can have only ONE style tag. Do not run in text with headings. Any typemarks contained within the text will remain visible in the text.

Style Tags A paragraph can only have one style tag placed at the beginning of the paragraph.

Style Tags
A paragraph can only have one style tag placed at the beginning of a paragraph.

PageMaker reads as
Style Tags A paragraph can only have one style tag placed at the beginning of the paragraph.

PageMaker reads as
Style Tags
A paragraph can only have one style tag placed at the beginning of a paragraph.

RULE: Use Lowercase Letters

Style tags are case sensitive. Thus, if you use the tag for an a-head, it will be read as a new tag by PageMaker, not as the a-head () in the style palette.

Use Lowercase Letters for Tags


Use Lowercase Letters for Tags

RULE: Only Use Angle Brackets for Typemarks

Do not include text between the angle brackets that is meant to be a message to the GA. Anything between the angle brackets is stripped out of the text. So in the incorrect example below, the line would be blank.

Incorrect PageMaker read as


\Insert figure 2.a\

PageMaker reads as

Insert Figure 2.1

RULE: Don’t Leave Space Before or After Typemarks

A space before a typemark leaves the tag in the paragraph like text and with the style of the previous paragraph; spaces after remain in the text.

Space before tag in Word
This is the first line of the paragraph.

PageMaker reads as
This is the first line of the paragraph.

Space after tag in Word
This is the first line of the paragraph.

PageMaker reads as
This is the first line of the paragraph.

Further Typemarking Samples

Here are a few more typemarking samples for elements that appear in HK books on a regular basis.

Bulleted Lists

Note that you may also use regular bullets from the Symbols Menu in Word or by using the Alt key (Alt + 0149). Never use the bullet list feature, though.

Motivating players is vital to the team’s success. Each player is different and can be reached through different means. However, certain threads will run through the program. I motivate by doing the following:
* Strengthen a player’s focus by using verbal reinforcement.
* Use one-on-one communication to let the athlete know you appreciate her efforts.
* Use token reinforcement as a fun motivator.
* Set up practices to allow for individual attention.
* Make softball special and fun. Include practice competition drills as a motivator.
* Incorporate goal setting into daily, weekly, and monthly planning.
* Encourage athletes to set performance rather than outcome goals and to reevaluate and adjust goals throughout the season.
* Instead of seeing yourself as providing motivation, think of yourself as giving inspiration. We have the potential as coaches to inspire players to become better athletes with a successful and healthy future.




To practice the fundamentals of these two emergency plays.
Partners stand 30-50 feet apart. One partner rolls ground balls for emergency plays off the forehand or the backhand. The fielder fields the ball, throws to the receiver, and returns to her starting position. Let the worker work until a certain amount of time has elapsed or until a certain number of plays have been completed. Then rotate.
Use three players. The additional player receives thrown balls from the fielder at different bases.
Time allowed
Five minutes total.


Special Elements

Trading Cards and Individual Posters
I once saw a great poster of Michael Jordan with the caption DESIRE under it. I thought that my athletes should have a poster of themselves with an inspirational message as well. I found some super looking paper and let them each choose a sheet as well as their saying. I then located the action picture of them that best depicted their abilities and designed a poster for them. I took the 8 ½-by-11-inch sheet to a color copier and made an 11-by-14 poster. I then laminated it and gave it to them. Some were used by the athletes as Christmas presents and many hung neatly framed on their residence hall wall.

I also designed trading cards for them. Again, the color copier did a super job! On the front I put their name and position along with our school’s name and an action photo. Information about their career and statistics appeared on the back. When they saw their cards they beamed!


Tips for Beginners
It’s difficult to be a beginner! You’re always falling, and then everyone gets mad at you for holding them up. Don’t despair! Take a deep breath and remember that you have some tools on your side:
1. Kick turns and linked traverses will get you down anything.
2. Pole drag will get you down anything.
3. Sideslipping will get you down the rest. \QQ AU: You describe kick turns and pole drag as two techniques that will get a beginner down any slope. What is the "rest" you mention with side-stepping? Will it also get you down anything? If all techniques can get a skier down anything, you could change the sentence leading into the list and the list to say "Take a deep breath and remember that three techniques will get you down anything: 1. Kick turns 2. Pole drag 3. Sideslipping" XQQ\

Avoid These Mistakes
1. Don’t ski "cold." Warm up with some easy flat skiing and stretch your muscles.
2. Maintain good posture-stand up straight and bend at the knees, not at the waist.
3. Don’t stare at your ski tips. Keep your head up!
4. Use just the muscles you need to use and relax everything else.
5. Don’t forget to breathe! Without knowing it, you might hold your breath because you are nervous. Breathe fear out and breathe power in! Visualize doing beautiful turns, turn by turn by turn.

Stacked Headings

Avoid stacking headings, as was done in this sample. As you have already been doing, check whether there are at least two occurrences of a lower-level head if one appears (i.e., if a b-head occurs under an a-head, there should be a second b-head as well).

The Energy-Producing Nutrients


Carbohydrates act as the body’s number one energy source, and each gram of carbohydrate yields 4 kcal of energy. As previously explained, the body uses ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as its primary energy source. ATP, as blood glucose and muscle glycogen, is produced more quickly from carbohydrate than from fats. The body can synthesize ATP from carbohydrates at a rate of about 1.0 mol/min. and from fats at a rate of about .5 mol/min (Ahlborg, 1967).

A Closer Look at Carbohydrates
l. Simple Sugars

a) Monosaccharides
The two most common monosaccharides are glucose, which is blood sugar and fructose, which comes from fruits.

\Insert Photo 12.3 here\

b) Disaccharides

Contents Back Appendix 5: Place of Publication and Province Abbreviations

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