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Except in cases where you are specifically asked to do so, copyeditors should usually not add typemarks but only query those that make little sense or that appear to be missing. Typemarking involves adding tags to indicate the formatting needs for a book's design (titles, heads, special elements, tables, figures, paragraph indentation)--that is, the instructions from editorial staff to book designers and graphic artists. HK book designers formulate style palettes and instructions for typemarks, which are
1. Unless otherwise specified, do not add any typemarking tags other than <tx> and <txni>, which stand for "indented text" and "nonindented text," respectively. The usual treatment for normal text is to indent for new paragraphs other than those at the beginning of a chapter and immediately after heads (which are always nonindented and therefore always need to be typemarked <txni>). All paragraphs to be indented require the typemark <tx>, which should be inserted by in-house editors as needed. GAs, in turn, are aware that the first paragraph after a chapter title, part opener, or head is not indented. After lists, however, the GAs will not know whether to indent a new paragraph or to continue with the paragraph begun before the list. Here is where the copyeditor should insert <txni> if the material is a continuation of the old paragraph or <tx> if it is a new paragraph if not already done so by in-house staff.
There should be no space between the second angle bracket and the ensuing text. If you think that a head, list, or special element has been marked incorrectly, please query the DE or ME. If you see a line with no typemark that appears to need one or you see more than one typemark on any line, query the DE or ME; there should be only one tag, and it must be the first element in the line. For example, you might write, "\QQ DE: Consider adding a <b> head here. XQQ\."
Occasionally, copyeditors are asked to typemark more than just nonindented text. In such cases, you will be informed by the ESM when you are offered the project. You will receive additional information about what typemarking tasks you will need to perform on the copyediting transmittal form. In all cases, the DE, ME, or AE will have typemarked the special elements and will go through several chapters of the manuscript to provide you with samples for how to proceed. For more information about typemarking manuscripts, see appendix 4.
2. For <d> heads, usual practice within page proofs is to run the text in after the head. Nonetheless, within manuscripts they are treated the same as all other heads. Here is an example of how the typemarking would look, with the sign indicating where a hard return would occur:
<d>Step Six in Copyediting.
<tx>Keep your coffee mug filled, your eyes on the screen, your dictionary at hand, and your mind alert.
When <d> heads are used within page proofs, proofreaders should always check that they have been treated correctly, i.e., run in with the text even though there is a hard return after them within the copyedited manuscript.
Follow CMS for descriptions of book parts in their appropriate order (see chapter 1) and for guidelines on treatment of the individual elements. Change or query any items that appear to be out of order according to the CMS list. This is most likely to occur in the front matter.
Usually all front matter will be placed in one computer file and in one hard-copy file folder. You should not
edit the copyright page or the book description (in the red production folder). NEW as
of 4/02: Make sure the Human Kinetics Web site reads this way (note capitalization): www.HumanKinetics.com.
Read the copyediting transmittal form to see if there are additional pages that should not be copyedited. Sometimes
a DE, ME, or AE will note on a page itself that it is not to be edited (e.g., the title page). Some manuscripts
are part of a series that has its own series introduction or preface, which has already been edited.
Preface: Edit carefully. Often the preface merits a more substantive edit to make it inviting and succinct. It should speak immediately to readers, persuading or enticing them to read further.
Acknowledgments or dedication: Edit lightly. Watch spelling.
Contents: Edit carefully for capitalization. If all caps have been used, be sure to indicate which words should actually be capitalized and change the rest to lowercase. Check that each item of the contents matches exactly the wording of its text appearance as a chapter title or a-head. Query discrepancies. It is okay to change wording slightly as appropriate, but be sure to do it both in the contents and in all text mentions.
List of contributors: Edit lightly, checking each author's name carefully against the chapter in which it again appears.
The usual order for front matter is as follows (an asterisk designates optional items):
Half title page* (usually used for proceedings or when blank pages exist)
List of Illustrations*
List of Tables*
List of Drills or Games [Game Finder, Drill Finder]*
List of Organizers, Sponsors, or Speakers*
Foreword* (usually included in trade books)
Contributor List* (edited books only; without bios or photos if list is in front matter)
Preface* (often omitted in trade books)
Introduction* (sometimes paginated with lowercase roman numerals as part of the front matter, sometimes with Arabic numerals as part of text body)
Consistency is of paramount importance in editing the body of the manuscript. Treatment of capitalization, hyphenation
and compound words, closing up prefixes appropriately, spelling in general, numbers, proper nouns, punctuation
of book elements, and phrasing should be consistent within and across chapters. When consistency is not necessary,
as in edited books with chapters by different authors, the DE or ME will note this on the transmittal form.
Most manuscripts are divided into chapters. The next higher division is a grouping of chapters into parts. In long manuscripts the various parts may be further arranged into sections. HK usually numbers the chapters and sections with Arabic numbers and the parts with roman numerals:
Chapters are numbered consecutively throughout the book; for example, part III might start with
chapter 7. All text mentions of or cross-references to chapters, parts, and sections should be lowercase followed by a numeral:
See part II.
See chapter 4.
Usually, all back matter will be placed in one computer file and in one hard-copy file folder. Back matter may
include references, a glossary, a list of suggested readings or a bibliography, about the author copy, and an index
(created at pages stage). See later sections on references (pages 39-42) and
glossary style (page 30). You should edit all back matter unless otherwise directed. The
order for back matter is this arrangement (an asterisk designates optional items):
Notes or Abbreviations* (abbreviations may instead be placed in the front matter)
References* (or Bibliography or Suggested Readings)
Index* (combined or author names and subjects)
About the Author* (or editor[s] or contributors)
List of Related Titles (for other books or HK products) or Membership Applications*
Respect the author's individual style as much as possible. The copyediting transmittal form should give guidance
about whether the DE or ME wants the style changed or preserved. We hope copyeditors will make trade books readable
for a general public-that is, interesting, clear, engaging, and smooth. In trade books it is common to use second
person (you), and many textbooks and references also use the second-person voice. See additional comments under
In editing book manuscripts, perhaps the most difficult task is assuring consistency throughout the work. Please use the style sheet as you develop it, and crosscheck your work. You may want to make a separate pass to copyedit like elements (i.e., all the heads, all special elements of a specific kind, lists, game procedures, etc.). On a last read-through (second or third pass), you should again be watching for oversights and for consistent edits.
Human Kinetics has five book divisions: Scientific, Technical, and Medical Division; Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Division; Trade Division; the American Sport Education Program; and the YMCA. (HK used to have two book divisions: Academic and Trade. Textual publications are also increasingly being copyedited and proofread for our Distance Education and Software Department. The audiences for the academic and trade divisions differ, as do their respective copyediting styles.
NOTE: The following are new descriptions of HK divisions and styles for each division. These descriptions replace the material in the hard copy of the style guide.
Scientific, Technical, and Medical Division (ST). This academic division publishes scholarly texts and
reference books in biomechanics, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport psychology, and sport sociology. Conference
proceedings and contributor books are also often published through this division. The primary audiences worldwide
are sports medicine and science professionals, university health and recreation faculty and students, and health
and wellness professionals.
These books typically contain more technical material than the other books we publish. They are often heavily referenced and may contain numerous display equations, extracted material, tables, graphs, and figures that require permission notices. Thus, copyeditors should check carefully for consistency and accuracy in these elements. Unless another style is mandated or exceptions are noted by the DE or ME, these manuscripts strictly follow CMS style. The copyediting transmittal form will specify either humanities or scientific style, which will affect the treatment of numbers, symbols, and abbreviations. Contractions, fragments of sentences, beginning a sentence with a conjunction, and one-sentence paragraphs should be avoided. Although the active voice is preferred, passive voice is acceptable. More complex sentence structure is common.
Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Division (HP). This academic division produces resources and programs that help children and young adults develop the skills, knowledge, fitness, and appreciation needed for living physically active, healthy lives. The primary audiences worldwide for these products are physical education professors and their students and elementary and secondary physical educators.
These books do not typically contain the same kind of technical material found in books from the ST Division. Although these are academic books, they tend to more closely resemble trade books than technical academic books. The copyediting transmittal form will specify either humanities or scientific style, which will affect the treatment of numbers, symbols, and abbreviations. Ideas must be expressed clearly and typically in an interesting style.
Trade Division (TD). This division publishes books for the general public, recreation and competitive athletes, coaches, and university activity classes. In general, the audiences are not sport or physical education experts (coaches being an exception). Trade topics include specific sports, current events, coaching, nutrition, health and fitness, sport psychology, and sport personalities.
Most trade books are written in an informal, more conversational style, using everyday terms and language. Ideas must be expressed clearly and in an interesting style. Sport-specific books often use the jargon specific to the sport, and in most cases it is appropriate to retain this jargon. However, books for beginners should include definitions of such terms.
American Sport Education Program (AS). The purpose of publications from this division is to bring scientific and sport knowledge to life for coaches who often have little or no sport science education. These coaches are often parents of young sport participants.
The copy should be clear, readable, practical, and in the active voice. In essence, we strive to keep the material "light and lively." Contractions, use of the second person, sentences beginning with conjunctions, incomplete sentences, and short paragraphs are acceptable if not overused.
YMCA (YP). Human Kinetics is the publisher of books and materials for the YMCA of the USA. HK typically assists the YMCA in developing resources on camping, character development, child care, management, family programs, teen leadership, and the like. The audiences for these resources vary among YMCA administrators, volunteers, instructors, and youth and adult participants. YMCA materials (like trade and ASEP materials) usually follow CMS humanities style. Unless otherwise noted on the copyediting transmittal form, abbreviations for units of measure are not used except in tables or particularly long segments of measurement-related text.
|Trade (including AS, YP)||Scientific (including HP, ST)|
|Abbreviations||Not common. When used, such as in tabular material, usually take a period. Exceptions are acronyms, which don't need periods. See CMS, chapter 14.||Don't need a period (except when there could be confusion: in., no.). Same abbreviation for singular or plural (1 m; 500 m).|
|Numbers||Zero through nine spelled out, yet there are exceptions, such as time (2:48 P.M.), very large numbers (3 billion), clusters of numbers ("Their ages were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 9"), and with abbreviations and symbols. Note: A "cluster" can be just two numbers ("aged 5 to 10"); it doesn't have to be several numbers.||Zero through nine spelled out except with units of measure (including time), physical quantities, and the exceptions in trade style. Always use numerals with abbreviations and symbols: 4%, 90°.|
|Expressed by a number, a word space, and the word percent or degree: 3 percent, 90 degrees, 45-degree angle||Expressed by a number closed up to the symbol %: 3%, 0 °C, 32 °F, 45° angle.|
|Decimals||Written without an initial zero: .95.||Less than 1.00, use initial zero: 0.85.*|
|Used between groups of three digits (e.g., 4,012) except for page numbers, years, and decimals.||Used between groups of three (e.g., 8,300) except for page numbers, years, and decimals. Don't use spaces (84 000) between digits.|
to book parts
|Same as scientific style.||Use numerals: chapter 4; part II.|
|Centuries||Follow same rules as other numbers.||Follow same rules as other numbers: 19th century; 21st century. Baseline ordinal (th, st), not superscript.|
Although hard-copy edits are rarely used, except with figures and tables, copyeditors should prepare manuscripts
edited on hard copy by using the marks and procedures outlined in CMS 2.65-2.87. Attend to every applicable task
on the HK copyediting checklist, and follow all special instructions provided by the DE, ME, or ESM.
Stet marks are a helpful device to signal some item that might appear incorrect to later workers but that the copyeditor has verified or wishes to leave as the author has written it. (For example, stet dots under the unusual spelling of Kathrine would say that the copyeditor saw the odd spelling, checked it, and correctly left it as is rather than add an e.) For both hard-copy and online editing, also include the name on the style sheet.
Where an author has used computer-generated italic and bold type in the body of the
text, follow these procedures: To confirm the author's usage, stet the italics or bold online and use the standard
underscoring for italic and wavy line for boldface on hard copy; to negate the author's usage, circle rom above
to negate italics and no bold to negate boldface on hard copy. Go ahead and make these changes online.
After every "displayed" element, such as a block quotation or a list, confirm (if the author has used indenting) or indicate (if the author used the preferred flush left style) whether the subsequent text should be indented as a new paragraph or not. You must indicate a new paragraph or no new paragraph on both hard-copy and online edits by inserting the correct typemark if it has not already been done by an in-house editor. See page 19, item 1.
Edit all heads. Correct for consistency, parallel construction, awkward wording, and appropriate length (shorten
where possible). Usually you should delete an article that begins a head. Check to make sure no stacked heads appear;
that is, there should be at least two sentences of copy between heads. If you find stacked heads, query them or
add copy (sometimes a solution is obvious, such as moving a sentence from a nearby location to add before the second
head). Chapters should not begin directly with a subhead, as a general rule, but should have some introductory
text before a head. Check whether there are at least two occurrences of a lower-level head if one appears (i.e.,
if a b-head occurs under an a-head, there should be a second b-head as well); if only one has been used, it is
usually unnecessary and should be queried.
For all heads, indicate uppercase in headline style: Capitalize all words except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions of three or fewer letters. Capitalize the following:
Hyphenated compounds of all types should follow the same rules (e.g., ignore the hyphens for purposes of capitalization). For d-heads, you may use sentence style (initial cap only) if it is used consistently by the author. The word to will always be lowercase, including use as an infinitive.
Here are some examples:
<b>Exercising With Different Intensities
<c>Adaptations As a Main Law of Training
<a>What Kind of Windsurfing Is Best
<b>What to Wear
<d>Finding a good sailing site
In proofreading heads, check that a logical and aesthetic division occurs if a particular head is too long to fit on one line. Appendix 8 gives some guidelines.
Review chapter 14 in CMS for use of abbreviations. In trade and nontechnical academic books, spell out terms
in running text, using abbreviations mainly for tables and lists (see the copyediting transmittal form for directions).
Use abbreviations freely in scientific or technical material that is designated CMS Scientific Style on the transmittal
form (see appendix 9 for some
common scientific abbreviations that you might encounter in HK manuscripts). Also see the section on figures on page 37 to 39 for the editing of art labels.
Here are some exceptions where abbreviations might be appropriate in humanities or trade style:
Periods are used more often with abbreviations in humanities and trade style. Do not use them with acronyms or with abbreviations in scientific style (except for clarity):
When addresses occur in running text, do not abbreviate the types of streets and state names (see CMS 14.21-14.22). Use abbreviations freely, however, in lists of addresses. Do not use a comma between the state and zip code. Follow these guidelines when you are copyediting lists of street addresses, such as in an appendix. Abbreviate the following:
Assume that the author has provided the correct format used in a given city for numeral streets, like 4th or Twelfth (contrary to Chicago, which directs you to spell out all such). If there are inconsistencies within a single city, query them.
For telephone numbers, separate area code from prefix with a hyphen (800-747-4457).
In general, HK seeks not only to avoid biased and stereotyped language but also to include a mix of peoples
that represents the U.S. population. In most manuscripts it is appropriate to include examples of both genders
and to make references to people gender-neutral or at least free of bias. Content sometimes precludes one sex or
the other (e.g., a book on women's basketball). When DEs or MEs ask you to ensure that examples refer to both sexes,
you should try first to cast sentences in the plural to avoid awkward constructions of he/she and his/her. If that
isn't possible, try to alternate examples referring to men and women, girls and boys, she and he, his and her.
Often pronouns can be eliminated, and an article (the) used instead. As a last resort--an option
that is actually becoming increasingly popular--use of the "singular they" may be helpful (see CMS, p.
76, n. 9).
Some authors and DEs or MEs advocate including names that seem to represent a mix of nationalities or racial groups, and the DE or ME may ask you to rename fictional examples. This treatment may offend other writers, who prefer garden-variety names. Follow the instructions given to you in the copyediting transmittal form.
Follow CMS styling for capitalizing the names of specific racial, linguistic, religious, and other groups of people:
In demographic and epidemiological studies of the general population, you may use lowercase designations black
and white if the author has consistently done so (see CMS 7.33-7.35).
Many manuscripts include information about working with people who have particular disabilities. How words and images are used can create a positive or insensitive portrayal. You may wish to consult the Associated Press Stylebook, the Guidelines for Reporting and Writing About People With Disabilities (3rd ed. published in 1990 by the Research and Training Center on Independent Living, Bureau of Child Research, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045), or Taking the Handicap Out of Disability (Governor's Council on People with Disabilities, 400 E. Campus View Blvd., Columbus, OH 43235-4604). A main principle is to put the person, not the disability, first: a woman with arthritis, a child with diabetes. For further information, visit the Web site of the Research and Training Center on Independent Living.
|Here are phrases to avoid:|
|confined to a wheelchair|
|Here are phrases you might use:|
|people who have multiple sclerosis|
|a man who had polio|
|people with mental retardation|
|people who are deaf, hearing impaired|
|uses a wheelchair, wheelchair user|
|blind visually impaired|
Where the intended audience is international, we will typically convert British usage to American (e.g., traveled
instead of travelled, civilization instead of civilisation). However, some manuscripts will retain British style
because the primary audience is British. The British style manual equivalent to CMS is Copy-editing: The Cambridge
Handbook for Editors, Authors and
Publishers. Another good reference is The Oxford Guide to English Usage: The Essential Guide to Correct English (Oxford University Press, 1994).
American workers should be cautious in changing constructions that sound odd to their ears; query terms and phrases you are unsure about. Better that an error be an author's than ours. Important differences between American and British style include these areas:
For calling out or referring to art, tables, and other chapters or locations in the text, use lowercase plus any appropriate numeral:
In books with multiple authors (or contributors), don't include cross-references to other work in the same manuscript in the reference list. Simply refer to the reference by writing, for example, "as discussed in chapter 9 of this volume."
Note that CMS uses periods with degrees because it is a formal style but allows omitting the periods if the
publisher leans toward a more modern house style. (See 1.13, 7.26, 14.2, 14.8, 14.11): M.A., M.A.'s or MA, MA's.
House style at HK is to omit the periods. When indicating the plural, don't use apostrophes: MAs, PhDs. Degrees
are capitalized when abbreviated, but they're lowercase when written in full when they follow a personal name and
lowercase when they are used in general terms:
Judy Wright, PhD (HK preference)
Judy Wright, Ph.D. (CMS preference)
Sherrilyn M. Billger, doctor of economics
master of science
Follow Chicago 10.48-63, using its second and preferred method (see 10.52-59) for treating ellipses. With four ellipses, the first usually represents the period, and it should be closed up to the preceding sentence. See page 17 for examples.
Set off prose quotations of 40 or more words with the typemark <ext> if this has not already been done
in-house. Do not indent the extract, and do not use ellipses before block quotations beginning with a complete
sentence or lowercase letter, or after block quotations ending with a complete sentence. Delete any quotation marks
at the start and finish of the extract. Indicate whether the material after the extract should begin a new paragraph
or continue the one before the block quote.
You may adjust the internal quotation marks (e.g., double to single) and should query the author about misspellings and possible typos (if you are fairly sure that something is a typo, like a word repetition, change it and query the author). If the extract ends with a reference or source citation, the period at the end of the extract should precede the opening parenthesis of the citation.
See CMS, chapter 10, especially 10.7, 10.10, 10.14, 10.20-21, 10.25-29, and 10.81-82.
Human Kinetics books rarely present quotations or other material in foreign languages. Most copyediting involves foreign terms or names only in references. See CMS, chapter 9, for treatment of foreign languages, and sections 15.118-119 and 15.227-229 for reference styling. In general, capitalization will follow the practice of the original language (e.g., the first word of the title and subtitle, and common nouns in German).
CMS hyphenates between the parts of a fraction used either as a noun or as an adjective: "He gave me a
glass two-thirds full; she gave me one-half of her portion." Words Into Type distinguishes, as does APA, between
usage as a noun or adjective: "He gave me a glass two-thirds full; she gave me one half of her portion."
If an author is consistent about this distinction, it is okay to delete the hyphen in noun uses. When a whole number
and fraction are combined,
they should be closed up as case or split fractions: 8¼.
If the keyboard doesn't allow this, leave a space for clarity: 8 1/4. Note:
It is difficult and time consuming for GAs to create case fractions. Unless there is a special circumstance on
a project that warrants spending the time to make all fractions case fractions, you should create the fractions
as shown here (1/4; 8 1/4) rather than as case. You should turn off the autoformat
feature in Word that converts fractions to case fractions. To do this, go into the Tools menu and choose AutoCorrect.
Choose the tab that says AutoFormat As You Type and make sure the box for replacing fractions with fraction characters
is NOT checked.
House style is to use lowercase for the terms, except for proper nouns, and to follow the term with an em dash and an initial cap for the definitions. We would prefer that you follow this style even if an author has followed a different and reasonable system consistently. This makes it easier to tell when a specific term is indeed a proper noun. Put a period at the end of each glossary definition.
Hyphenation is an arena of significant discretionary judgment, particularly regarding compound words. Copyeditors should take special care to record on their style sheets all their decisions for using--or not using--hyphens, and all other workers should take special caution before introducing changes afterward. Some seemingly identical compounds are hyphenated in particular uses but not in others (for example, "a well-read person" and "she is well read" are both correct; see CMS, table 6.1). NEW as of December 2004: Do not use hyphens with abbreviated measures. If a measurement is hyphenated, such as "a 35-pound hammer," and an abbreviated conversion appears in parentheses afterward, the abbreviated term should NOT be hyphenated. Here's an example:
If you throw a 35-pound (15.9 kg) hammer. . .
The trend, according to CMS 6.38, is for usage to proceed from an open compound to a hyphenated compound to a closed compound. Please review sections 6.32-6.42 and table 6.1 (pp. 219-231) frequently. It is easy for copyeditors to miss hyphenations, which proofreaders then spend hours correcting at a more costly stage in the book publication process! Copyeditors must have mastery over the hyphenation details in the HK house style sheet. For example, the terms warm-up and cool-down appear often in HK books. Our preference is to style them in similar fashion, unlike the treatment in Webster's 10th edition, because they usually occur close to each other in a manuscript. Most copyeditors opt for warm-up and cool-down.
On hard copy, please add a close-up mark to hyphens that appear at the end of a line, indicating whether they should be part of the manuscript or deleted in typesetting. In online edits, check that the author has not used a hard return and that the hyphen has no space between it and the next element in the compound.
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