Procedures for Citing Electronic Media
in HK's Publications

Web Addresses

Look on pages 40 through 42 of HK's freelance style guide for specific examples of citing electronic references. This handout is a supplement to the material in the style guide.

For standard Web addresses, list the site using the www prefix. For example, Don't include the http:// if there's a www. in the address.

It's important to include the www prefix when it's part of the name; however, many newer sites don't include the www. For example, is a Web address. For these kinds of addresses, include the http://.

So, Here's the Short Answer

Include everything after the http:// unless there is no www prefix. Here are some examples of different uses.

A standard: (For the HK Web address, capitalize the H and the K.)
NEW added 3/04:
For any product from HK, use headline-style capitalization: But for any product not from HK, use lowercase:

A subdirectory:
A final page:
A non-www site:
Other examples:

End-of-Line Breaks

The following is from Bill Walsh's Web site,, on procedures for end-of-line breaks of Web addresses in text.

E-mail and Web addresses cannot be broken up with end-of-line hyphens. The addresses and are as different as 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. NW and 10 Downing St;.computers, unlike letter carriers, don't deal in the concept of "almost." Rewrite paragraphs if you have to, but avoid confusing readers by introducing punctuation marks that could be misinterpreted as being part of a cyber-address.

This might be too idealistic when dealing with narrow columns, but thus far in my career I've been able to avoid the increasingly popular practice of splitting Web addresses after a dot, sans hyphen. A slash is a perfectly fine line-ender in a Web address. It's a punctuation mark that doesn't take spaces on either side, but it separates words rather than splitting them, so it needs no hyphen. So you could break after http:// or after or after See how easy it can be to avoid this splitting-on-the-dot nonsense?

Dividing URLs Over a Line
When a URL must be broken over a line in printed works, Chicago now recommends breaking before rather than after a slash (/). Here are further explanations from CMS 16th edition:

7.42 Dividing URLs and e-mail addresses
In printed works, it is often necessary to break an e-mail address or a uniform resource identifier such as a URL at the end of a line. Such a break should be made between elements if at all possible: after a colon or a double slash; before or after an equals sign or an ampersand; or before a single slash, a period, or any other punctuation or symbols. To avoid confusion, an address that contains a hyphen should never be broken at the hyphen; nor should a hyphen be added to break an e-mail address or URL. If a particularly long element must be broken to avoid a seriously loose line, it should be broken between syllables according to the guidelines offered previously. (Authors should not break URLs in their manuscripts; see 2.12.)


14.12 URLs or DOIs and line breaks
In a printed work, if a URL or DOI has to be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand. Such breaks help to signal that the URL or DOI has been carried over to the next line. A hyphen should never be added to a URL or DOI to denote a line break, nor should a hyphen that is part of a URL or DOI appear at the end of a line. It is usually unnecessary to break URLs or DOIs in electronic publications (except in PDFs and other formats modeled on the printed page), and authors should avoid forcing them to break (with hard returns or other devices) in their manuscripts (see 2.12).



Proper Citation of Software Products

Capitalize names of software products, but do not use the trademark symbol. We are not required to use trademark symbols, even for Microsoft products.

Some Examples From HK Materials

The following is an example of text from one of our graphics packages:

_________ can be installed on either a Windows-based PC or a Macintosh computer.
If so, please divide the Minimum System Requirements into a Microsoft Windows and a Macintosh bulleted list.
(1) System compatibility:

IBM PC compatible with Pentium processor

Windows 9.x/NT 4.0

Windows 2000

Pentium processor or higher

486 ________________

Power Mac recommended

System 7.x or 8.x

System 7.x/8.x/9.x

System __________


(2) Software Requirements:

Adobe Acrobat Reader

Microsoft PowerPoint

Microsoft Office


Other Media


In text, italicize video titles: Teaching Youth Basketball Basics.


In text, set CD-ROM titles in italics. Here's an example of text from an instruction manual:
Insert the Sport Director Professional Edition CD-ROM into the drive.

The title is in italics, but "CD-ROM" is not set in italics. We have exceptions, however. For titles like Krause, it was Interactive Basketball Skills and Drills CD-ROM, all in italics because CD-ROM was part of the official title (to set it distinctly apart from the book).

For instructor guides and test banks, the official title is Ancillary Software. So the title would be, for example, Gould and Weinberg Ancillary Software. For the graphics package, it would be Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology Graphics Package. And, if you're telling someone where to put the CD-ROM, write "Insert the Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology Graphics Package CD-ROM into. . .."

Electronic Media in Reference Lists

Here's CMS' pat answer to styling videorecordings:
The many varieties of visual (and audiovisual) materials now available render futile any attempt at universal rule making. The nature of the material, its use to the researcher using it, and the facts necessary to find (retrieve) it should govern the substance of any note or bibliography (CMS 15.418).

Videos, CD-ROMs, cassettes, and music CDs won't necessarily take the same format as books and articles listed in references. What you should try to do is list similar elements in the same order as they are listed for books and articles. Here are some examples:

1. Title-date format

Winning Respect. 1998. Produced by the American Sport Education Program. 15 min. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Videocassette.

2. Author-title format

Perlman, Itzak. Itzak Perlman: In My Case Music. Produced and directed by Tony DeNonno. 10 min. DeNonno Pix, 1985. Videocassette.