Not all redundancy is obvious. Many writers use expressions containing strings of subtly synonymous words. I've
collected some examples of text that should be streamlined. The redundant phrases are boldfaced. Comments and solutions
appear in parentheses after most examples.
A well-known reputation for integrity . . .
(If someone has a reputation, then it's taken for granted that the reputation is well known. Here's a solution: a reputation for integrity.)
This article's particular focus is on large-scale sporting events.
(A focus is always particular. Otherwise it wouldn't be a focus.)
Three major theoretical concepts have been applied in an attempt to understand young athletes' sport involvement and dropout, namely: achievement orientation, competence motivation, and cognitive-affective social exchange.
(There's no need for the word namely when the number of items in the list is stated in the introductory sentence. In fact, namely is often an unnecessary word. It can be deleted in most cases.)
A how-to guide for physical education teachers . . .
(A guide will surely tell you how to do something. No need to include the how-to.)
Studying the determinants of youth sport participation and dropout is important not only for pediatric sport and exercise scientists but also for policy makers trying to develop organized sport and promote public health as well.
(There's no need for the as well at the end of the sentence. The but also states the point sufficiently.)
Bring all documents (e.g., tax forms, receipts, records, and so on).
(I see this one often. If there's an e.g., or a for example, then we know that what follows that is just a sample of items. We don't need and so on to tell us that the list isn't exhaustive.)
Among his numerous scientific accomplishments, Newton is credited with establishing three laws of motion, including Newton's first law, Newton's second law, and Newton's third law.
(The word including is often misused. Many writers use it to introduce an exhaustive list. That's not a good use of the word. Including should introduce just a sample of possible options. If you want to list all possible elements, leave out the including: Among his numerous scientific accomplishments, Newton is credited with establishing three laws of motion: Newton's first law, Newton's second law, and Newton's third law.)
Here are some other common redundant phrases:
The reason is because
Period of time
Prior work experience