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Appendix 9. Scientific Abbreviations

Human Kinetics Books Style and Common Abbreviations

Note: Text in red denotes a change from the hard copy of the style guide. Ignore the right column of appendix 9 in the hard copy. These are commands for an old software system. Microsoft Word is capable of creating subscripts and superscripts. If an overdot or macron is needed, put the code in backslashes and record the code on your character code sheet. Refer to appendix 3, Guidelines for Character Coding, for a list of character codes.

Changes from the hard copy of the style guide appear in green.

ADP = adenosine diphosphate
ATP = adenosine triphosphate
(a-v¯)O2 difference = arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (see hard copy for macron over v)
beats/min Note change. Use a slash when expressing two units. Use exponents (scientific style, or ml · kg-1 · min-1) only when expressing three or more units.
°C = degrees Celsius (centigrade), as in 10 °C (Note: this has been corrected as of 2/17/05. This style is used by the International System of Units, and we will use this style of spacing with degree symbols as well.)
CA = carbonic anhydrase
CA++ calcium ion
CO2 = carbon dioxide
CP = creatine phosphate; also called PC, phosphocreatine
14C = radioactive carbon
d = distance
db = dry bulb
e¯ = electron
f = frequency of breathing per minute
F = force
FIO2 = fractional concentration of O2 in inspired gas
°F = degrees Fahrenheit: 45 °F
FFA = free fatty acids
FFW = fat-free weight
FT (or FG) = fast-twitch muscle fibers or motor units (or fast, glycolytic fibers)
FX = fractional concentration of gas
g = black globe temperature (radiant energy)
g = gram
H = hydrogen atom
Hb = hemoglobin
HbO2 = oxyhemoglobin
HCO3- = bicarbonate ion
Hg = mercury
HR = heart rate
H2CO3 = carbonic acid
H2O = water
kcal = kilocalorie
kcal/min = kilocalories per minute Note change. Don't use scientific style (kcal · min-1) when expressing only two units.
kg = kilogram
L = liter (Note cap L for liter but lowercase l for milliliter, ml)
L/min, often used in expressing VO2 when it is not necessary to take body weight (kg) into account Note change from scientific style (L · min-1)
LA = lactic acid
LBW = lean body weight
LBM = lean body mass
m = meter
meq = milliequivalent
METs = metabolic equivalent equal to 3.5 ml of O2 consumed per kg and per minute
min = minute
ml = milliliter
ml · kg-1 · min-1 or ml/[kg × min] = milliliter per kilogram per minute
mm = millimeter
mmHg = millimeters of mercury
mmol = millimole
Na+ = sodium ion
O2 = oxygen
P = power
PB = barometric pressure
PaCO2 = partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood
PvO2 = partial pressure of O2 in mixed venous blood
PcCO = partial pressure of CO in pulmonary capillary blood
PC = phosphocreatine, also CP, creatine phosphate
PCO2 = partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Pi = inorganic phosphate
PN2 = partial pressure of nitrogen
PO2 = partial pressure of oxygen
P = partial pressure of gas
Q = cardiac output
Qc = blood flow through pulmonary capillaries per minute
RM = repetition maximum
s = second
SvO2 = saturation of Hb with O2 in mixed venous blood (bar over subscript V)
ST (or SO) = slow-twitch muscle fibers or motor units (or slow, oxidative fibers)
SV = stroke volume
t = time
TV = tidal volume; also VT
V = volume
V·E = minute ventilation, or amount of air expired in one minute (dot goes over V; code it as V\od\E)
VE = volume of expired gas
V·A = alveolar ventilation per minute (dot goes over V)
VT = tidal volume
VD = volume of dead space gas
V·O2 = volume of oxygen consumed per minute
V·O2max = maximal volume of oxygen consumed per minute during exercise
wb = wet bulb
WBGT = wet bulb globe temperature
WBT = wet bulb temperature

Note: Subscripts will be typeset as shown unless specifically requested by the author to do otherwise (for example, subscripts in Roman as opposed to italic: VE or PaCO2).

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