Customer Alert: This site will be experiencing brief outages on Friday, 07/25/2014, from 7 pm to 12 am CST, as we update and implement improvements on our network systems. We sincerely apologize for any inconvenience and thank you for your patience.


Shopping Basket 0
Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

HUMAN KINETICS

Excerpts

Program planning should begin with assessment of current community conditions

By Sarah Levin Martin and Lauren M. Workman

This is an excerpt from Promoting Physical Activity: A Guide for Community Action, Second Edition, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, David R. Brown, Gregory W. Heath, and Sarah Levin Martin, Editors.


Program Planning

As you are planning, create an approach that will account for who is going to do what, when, where, and how (and for how much money). Following are questions to consider as you plan your program (see sidebar). These questions will help you conceptualize your program, foresee barriers, and keep your overall goals in mind.

CDD 138box.png

Carefully conducted program planning begins much before a work plan can be developed—it begins with an assessment of current conditions. This is referred to as a formative assessment. Formative assessment is a process designed to enhance understanding of the target audience’s characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, values, behaviors, determinants, benefits, and barriers to behavior change to inform a strategy for interventions and programs. It is the “precede” of the precede–proceed model, that is, the diagnosis of social, epidemiological, behavioral, environmental, educational, organizational, and administrative and policy factors (Green & Krueter, 1992), similar to the market research involved in social marketing (Andreasen, 1995).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At a minimum, the formative assessment will include a look at needs and resources in a community. In gathering these data, consider questioning several people and using a variety of methods (DHHS, 2002):

  • People
  • Organizational and agency staff
  • Physical activity program staff
  • Community leaders
  • Funding officials
  • General public

There are various ways to collect data:

  • From surveys
  • Face-to-face
  • Telephone
  • E-mail
  • Postal mail
  • From interviews (structured or unstructured)
  • Face to face
  • Telephone
  • Public forums
  • Focus groups
  • From documents
  • Grant proposals
  • Newsletters
  • Press releases
  • Administrative records
  • Current or previous intervention attendance lists
  • From existing data
  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
  • Youth Risk Behavioral System (YRBS)
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
  • National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
  • Crime reports
  • Other public domain research-based surveys
  • Directories
  • From observations
  • Direct observations of behavior or a physical environment
  • Indirect observations (e.g., video camera or infrared light counters)

Based on the findings of the formative assessment, you are ready to begin thinking about your program. It is best to work with a group of people who are interested in the issue to plan the program and its evaluation. These are referred to as stakeholders, and they fall into four main categories (DHHS, 2002):

  1. Implementers: those who implement, manage operations, and evaluate the program
  2. Partners: those who support overall program goals and efforts to implement and evaluate the program
  3. Participants: those who will be affected by the program
  4. Decision makers: those with decision-making power over the program

 

It’s important to begin by working with stakeholders to determine a vision and mission, which will help articulate a foundation and direction for your program and its evaluation.

Vision and Mission

As commonly defined in strategic planning, a vision is a guiding image of success or an ideal condition; for example, “Our vision is people of all ages being active in an activity-friendly community.” A mission is a statement of general purpose; it communicates your essence: “Our coalition’s mission is to promote physical activity to all levels of the community.”

Next, you can work with stakeholders to determine the goals and objectives. These should be consistent with the vision and the mission. Take some time to carefully consider and construct objectives because these will be the keys to conducting the evaluation.

Goals and Objectives

A goal is a broad statement of purpose. For example, “Our goal is to increase the physical activity level of community members by making more physical activity opportunities accessible to all.”

An objective describes results expected to be reached. Objectives are most useful when they are SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (DHHS, 2002).

  • Specific: who (target population) and what (action or activity)
  • Measurable: how much change is expected
  • Achievable: realistic given current resources and constraints
  • Relevant: within the scope of the program purposes
  • Time-bound: when the objective will be met

For example, “One of our objectives is to expand the physical activity offerings of the Parks and Recreation Department by 50% by December 2011.” Evaluation planning can actually precede program planning. In other words, you may know, or want to know, what questions to answer before you know what program or intervention will be implemented.

Once the vision, mission, goals, and objectives are established, it is time to start thinking about strategies to reach your goals and objectives. In conjunction with considering the activities that will be conducted, consider what is needed to make the activities happen—these are the inputs.

Inputs

Inputs are the staff, partners, and financial and other resources that make it possible to implement activities. Examples of diverse inputs include these:

  • Your own staff time and expertise
  • A partner’s donation of gymnasium time
  • The city chamber of commerce’s donation of financial resources
  • The public support of the mayor
  • An existing trail

Activities

When you plan physical activity interventions, consider evidence-based interventions, that is, interventions that have been shown to work. The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health? (Community Guide) (Heath et al., 2006; Kahn et al., 2002; Zaza et al., 2005) includes eight recommended physical activity intervention categories within three broad approaches and are described more fully in Part II. Selecting one or more of these interventions and tailoring them based on a formative assessment will increase the chances of having an effective intervention.

Writing a work plan and developing a logic model that specifies the details of your activities can be very helpful. The work plan should include a time line with a detailed description of tasks and an identified person who agrees to do them, as described in table 7.1.



Share Facebook Reddit LinkedIn Twitter

Tools


Print Save to favorites


Products


Promoting Physical Activity 2nd Edition eBook
This guide for community action offers the tools and information you need to help people get off the couch and on their way to healthy living.
€32.50
Promoting Physical Activity-2nd Edition
This guide for community action offers the tools and information you need to help people get off the couch and on their way to healthy living.
€45.50


Also of Interest



Get the latest news, special offers, and updates on authors and products. SIGN UP NOW!

Human Kinetics Rewards

About Our Products

Book Excerpts

Catalogs

News and Articles

About Us

Career Opportunities

Events

Partners

Business to Business

Author Center

HK Today Newsletter

Services

Exam/Desk Copies

Language rights translation

Association Management

Associate Program

Rights and Permissions

Featured Programs

Human Kinetics Coach Education

Fitnessgram

Fitness for Life

Active Living Every Day

Connect with Us

Google Plus YouTube Tumblr Pinterest

Terms & Conditions

/

Privacy Policy

/

Safe Harbor