Each of these areas of knowledge underpins the competence of the coach to do the job across the primary functions outlined in chapter 3. Coaching competences can be delineated into those that permit one to meet the needs of a specific situation (functional competence) and those that enable one to perform specific duties (task-related competence).
The relationship between coaching values, knowledge and functional competence across the coaching strands and domains is outlined figure 6.1.
Functional coaching refers to adopting an approach to guide the improvement of athletes in a given social and organisational context. It acknowledges that coaching is a complex and dynamic activity that spans beyond the track or the pitch and the mere transfer of knowledge and skills from coach to athlete. Essentially, coaches must be equipped to understand, interact with and shape their environments. They must be able to demonstrate task-related competence in each of the primary functions identified in chapter 3.
Coaches carry out a range of tasks that require a variety of competences. These can be classified according to the six primary functional areas as outlined in table 6.2. Whilst coaches can develop their competency on the job, the task-related competences should be embedded in basic qualifications for coaches. Table 6.2 indicates the match of levels of competency with coaching roles.
Ongoing research is attempting to identify specific learning outcomes related to coaches’ knowledge, competence and values.3 The alignment of qualifications among national federations, government organisations and international federations provide options, pathways and recognition for coaches. The education, development and certification of coaches are addressed in chapters 8 and 9.