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HUMAN KINETICS

Relation Among Arteries and Cerebral Activity With a Go/No-Go Task and Physical Strength

This study investigated relationships among the condition of one’s arteries and one’s cerebral activity by the results of Go/No-Go tasks and physical strength tests.

Satomi Fujimori, Graduate School of Medicine, Shinshu University; Kiyoshi Uchiba, Nagano City Ooka Clinic, Japan; Masao Okuhara, Management of Administration and Information, Tokyo University of Science, Suwa, Japan; Koki Nakajima, Man Healthy Faculty, Matsumoto University, Japan; Kikunori Shinohara, Center of General Education and Humanities, Tokyo University of Science, Suwa, Japan; Tomio Matsumura, Graduate School division of Education, Shinshu University, Japan; Hiroshi Miura, Graduate School Division of Engineering, Shinshu University, Japan; Takuya Hara, Graduate School division of Education, Shinshu University, Japan; Keisuke Nakade, Health and Welfare Department, Minowa Town Office, Japan; Koji Terasawa, Graduate School of Medicine, Shinshu University, Japan



Introduction: There are various factors to living a healthy life and improving individual quality of life. Concerning the elderly, some treatises report that reducing visceral fat area is effective against lifestyle-related diseases. Other treatises attempt to identify the causal factors, such as well-balanced nutrition and proper physical training, but little is known. Therefore we investigated whether human beings have correlations between mental ability and physical ability.

Method: This study investigated relationships among the condition of one’s arteries and one’s cerebral activity by the results of Go/No-Go tasks and physical strength tests. 220 healthy men and women aged 41-75 who live in Nagano Prefecture participated in our study. We used Form PWV/ABI (Omron Colin Co., Ltd.) as a measurement tool to examine blood pressure pulse wave velocity (PWV) to determine the condition of arteries. The Go/No-Go tasks followed Masaki’s method (Takeo Masaki 1968) such as "When you see the red lamp, you must squeeze the gum ball" as a formation experiment, and added the yellow lamp "When you see the red, you must squeeze, and when you see the yellow, you must not squeeze" as a divide experiment, and reversed the lamp "When you see the yellow, you must squeeze, and when you see the red, you must not squeeze" as a reversal-divide experiment. 7 items: grip strength test (GST); sit-ups test; sit and reach flexibility test (SRFT); eyes open, single leg stance test (EOSLT); 10-m obstacle walk test (TMOWT); 6-min walk test (SMWT); and lung capacity were taken to measure physical strength.

Results and Discussion: The statistics show that in those with low PWV, meaning soft arteries with good condition, the total mistakes made on the Go/No-Go tasks of divide and reversal-divide were also significantly low. In addition when PWV was low, the score of SMWT, lung capacity, EOSLST, TMOWT, and SRFT were significantly high. And if the blood pressure ratio of ankle to brachial measures, called ankle brachial index (ABI), was in an appropriate range, GST and SRFTS were also significantly strong scores. From a principal factor analysis, the most significant correlation identified was ABI and staying power (r = .2629). Staying power significantly correlated with the number of mistakes on the Go/No-Go Tasks of divide and reversal-divide experiment (r = -.2563). PWV and the errors score of forgetting to squeeze on the Go/No-Go Tasks of divide and reversal divide were also significantly correlated (r = -.1734). From these measurements and experiments and analyses, we have 3 conclusions. First, one who has soft arteries keeps good brain function, ability to understand, memory, attentiveness, judgments, ability to control oneself, and keeps physical strength of SMWT, lung capacity, EOSLST, TMOWT, and SRFT. Second, when one’s ABI score is in the appropriate range, one keeps GST and SRFT better. Third, the high staying power of SMWT and lung capacity reduce the risk of stricture of blood vessels and help maintain brain function. Next, we are planning further study to assess exercise participants, and hope the results indicate that it makes people healthy to have individual custom-made training programs constructed from our Evidence Based Medicine.




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