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HUMAN KINETICS

Beneficial Effect of Regular Exercise on Hepatic Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Oxidation in Old Rats

The specific aim of this study was to explore effects of regular exercise on oxidative status of DNA in the aged animal model.

Sataro Goto, Institute of Health and Sports Science & Medicine, Juntendo University; Hideko Nakamoto, Institute of Health and Sports Science & Medicine, Juntendo University, Japan; Takao Kaneko, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology; Zsolt Radak, Semmelweis University School of Sport Science; Hisashi Naito, Institute of Health and Sports Science & Medicine, Juntendo University, Japan



Exercise increases the generation of reactive oxygen species that are potentially harmful. Regular exercise, on the contrary, has been reported to have a number of health benefits even late in life. The specific aim of this study was to explore effects of regular exercise on oxidative status of DNA in the aged animal model.

We found that 2 months of regular treadmill running of aged rats (21 month-old: human equivalent of approximately 50 years of age) significantly reduced 8-oxodG content to the level of young adult animals (11 month-old: human equivalent of approximately 30 years of age) in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of the liver. The levels in old animals were 2- and1.5-fold higher than those in young adults for the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. The activity of the repair enzyme OGG1 was up-regulated significantly in the nucleus but not in mitochondria by the exercise.

To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that regular exercise can significantly reduce oxidative damage to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. It is noted that such an effect was observed in nonmuscle tissue. We have previously reported that regular swimming exercise reduced oxidative protein damage in the brain of middle-aged rats. We suggest that these beneficial outcomes are due to hormetic effect of moderate oxidative stress and adaptation to stronger stresses, being a basis of health benefits of regular exercise in old age.

References:

Goto S: Hormesis and intervention of aging: An emerging paradigm in gerontology. Geriatrics and Gerontology International 4: S79-S80, 2004.

Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S: Opinion: Exercise and hormesis: Oxidative stress-related adaptation for successful aging. Biogerontology 6: 71-75, 2005.

Nakamoto H, Kaneko T, Tahara S, Hayashi E, Naito H, Radak Z, Goto S: Regular exercise reduces 8-oxodG in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and modulates the DNA repair activity in the liver of old rats. Exp Gerontol 42: 287-295, 2007.

Goto S, Radak Z: Regular exercise attenuates oxidative stress in aging rat tissues: A possible mechanism toward antiaging medicine. J Exerc Sci Fit 5: 1-6, 2007.

Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S: Systemic adaptation to oxidative challenge induced by regular exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 44: 153-159, 2008.




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