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A Study of the Relationship Between Muscle Quantity and Balance and Brain Function

The purpose of this study was to clarify how brain function is related to the muscle and to be able to aid future exercise prescription.

Koji Terasawa, Shinshu University, Faculty of Education, Japan; Keisuke Nakade, Health and Welfare Department, Minowa Town Office; Masao Okuhara, Management of Administration and Information, Tokyo University of Science, Suwa; Koki Nakajima, Man Healthy Faculty, Matsumoto University; Satomi Fujimori, Graduate School of Medicine, Shinshu University; Hiroshi Miura, Graduate School Division of Science and Technology, Shinshu University; Takuya Hara, Tomio Matsumura, Graduate School Division of Education, Shinshu University; Saiki Terasawa, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University; Akitaka Yanagisawa, Matsmoto Junior College

Introduction: In an aging society, it is known that lifestyle-related diseases evolve into cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, and diabetes. And it is also known that as dementia progresses brain function declines. Up until now, the study of brain function and its relationship with physical and muscle strength has been superficial. The purpose of this study was to clarify how brain function is related to the muscle and to be able to aid future exercise prescription.

Methods: The subjects were 101 (M ± SD, 65.1 ± 6.7 years old), 12 men (64.8 ± 5.8 years old) and 89 women (65.1 ± 6.9 years old). The investigation items were quantity of muscle, GO/NO-GO tasks, and the physical fitness test. The bioelectricity impedance Phsion-MD made by the Phsion company was used which measured the quantity and the balance of the muscle. The Go/No-Go tasks used the Masaki method (1968) such as "When you see the red lamp, you must squeeze the gum ball" as a formation experiment, and added the yellow lamp "When you see the red, you must squeeze, and when you see the yellow, you must not squeeze" as a divide experiment, and reversed the lamp to "When you see the yellow, you must squeeze, and when you see the red, you must not squeeze" as a reversal divide experiment. The new fitness test of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology for 65-79 year olds was adopted for the physical strength test.

Results and Discussion: It was found that where the discrimination time of the GO/NO-GO tasks was fast, grip strength and lung capacity were significantly higher. Where the discrimination time of the reversal divide experiment was fast, the 10-m obstacle walk and lung capacity were rated significantly better. The fewer the total number of errors on the GO/NO-GO tasks ( the higher the eyes-open single-leg stance value was rated. From this we can be fairly certain that brain function closely affects the sense of balance. In the differentiation experiment of the GO/NO-GO task, as the number of "forgetting to grip" decreased, there was a significant relationship of that to the left thigh and quantity of quadriceps femoral muscles. It was guessed that the ability for judgment in the GO/NO-GO test correlated to the quantity of muscles in the left thigh. The study showed that those with more femoral and quadriceps muscle had a lower number of "forgetting to grip" in the GO/NO-GO tasks and thus the quantity of muscle in the femur and quadriceps closely affected the brain function.

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