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Natural and Spiral Mobilization for Older Adults Lying on a Bed Using “Kinaesthetics”

Hiroko Tadaura, School of Nursing, Miyagi University; Kumiko Hiraki, Naomi Matsuo, Keiko Tokunaga, School of Nursing, Miyagi University, Japan

Objectives: Kinaesthetics is a concept established by Dr. Hatch and Ms. Lenny Maietta. The word kinaesthetics means movement and sense. Kinaesthetics was introduced in 2001 in Japan. It became noticed because of its reported benefits to support care for patients including older adults. Basic movement patterns are spiral movements and parallel movements in Kinaesthetics, e.g., the process to stand up for a baby is applied for the basic methods in the Kinaesthetics concept. Many older adults, especially those confined to lying in bed, have self-care deficiencies because of the lack of enough functional movement. In the medical field, nurses are needed to effectively support such older patients with self-care deficiencies but most of the nurses’ support for such older patients is to move them using parallel movement by the body mechanics method which is learned in basic nursing education. It is said that many nurses have back pain by body mechanics and many older patients also have pain or uneasiness when they are moved by this method. On the other hand, it is said that Kinaesthetics of which basic movement patterns are spiral and parallel is greatly comfortable for both older adults and nurses. The aim of this study is to make clear that Kinaesthetics is applied to natural human movements while lying in bed. We focused on a similarity between human natural movements and Kinaesthetics movements.

Method: Under ethical informed consent, we checked 7 healthy persons’ natural movements while lying in bed using a 3D movement analysis device (Library). These healthy people lying in bed moved 3 patterns naturally and freely, 1) A horizontal mobility: from a horizontal position to another space on the bed horizontally, 2) Upward movement: from a horizontal position to upward space on the bed and 3) A lateral decubitus position: from a horizontal position to lying on their side. In addition, we checked their movements when they experienced the same 3 movement pattern supports using Kinaesthetics using 3D movement analysis. We compared with both pictures and analyzed movement traces, speed and acceleration, vectors and joint moments.

Results: In natural horizontal mobility, people divided a body motion into 3 or 4 stages and moved on the bed. In upward movement, they kicked a foot and moved the load to an antiside of the body with a shoulder and a waist and a head and repeated movements to move to former by spiral movement. In a lateral decubitus position, they kicked a foot and moved upward and side for a spiral. They performed similar movement under Kinaesthetic supports. It was clear that movement supports using the Kinaesthetic approach facilitated natural movements on the bed.

Discussion: It is noted that older adults do not feel stress under Kinaesthetic movements because they can feel natural movements as if they were moving by themselves. Movement supports using Kinaesthetics for older adults provide a comfortable feeling because they reproduce human natural movement on the bed surface. Kinaesthetic mobilization has the possibility to help older patients keep their natural movement abilities and to maintain or improve their health status.


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